of a patient named D.H.
D.H. is a 54
year old male who was seen in our clinic about a year and a half
ago. He complained of fatigue and low sex drive. Overall he had
no other serious complaints. His physical exam was essentially unremarkable.
We did laboratory studies on him. The total Testosterone was about
297 and free Testosterone was about 54. The percent of free Testosterone
was about 1.87 and the PSA was about 1.5. He was started on Pharmabul
Inc. Tribulus terrestris L herbal product Trilovin 250. Intermittently,
the patient was evaluated in the clinic and he reported improved
strength and energy level. Additionally, his sex drive was much
At his annual physical exam one year later, the patient was re-evaluated
and he seemed to be in very good spirit and full of energy. He reported
that he had increased his exercise activity an improved his diet.
Furthermore, his mood and zest for life seemed to have also improved.
We repeated his laboratory studies, at this time, and there was
market improvement in his total and free Testosterone. Based on
attached laboratory report, his Testosterone level had improved
by 100 % (total Testosterone- 540, free Testosterone- 185, percent
free Testosterone- 1.95). The PSA was reduced to about 1.1. This
is most impressive patient result we have had on Trilovin 250 as
the main treatment for low Testosterone. We chose him as a case
study because he was not taking other supplements that could impact
on the results we obtained.
This case goes to show that Trilovin 250 is well worth further study
for the treatment of Hypogonadism in males. We have several other
patients on Trilovin 250 who are taking other supplements with similar
results as above, however, we could not isolate Trilovin 250 as
the only cause of changes we observed in them. In the current case,
the patient was consistent and complaint with taking Trilovin 250
at 4 tablets a day for 1 year. The results obtained therefore reflect
the impact of Trilovin 250.
This case therefore, suggests that Trilovin 250 has tremendous potential
for management of Hypogonadism in males.
NCHEKWUBE, M.D.,F.A.A.F.P., FAMILY MEDICINE AND WELLNESS CENTER.
on liver function test and hepatitis-C viral load in one patient
The patient is
a 48-year-old male, previous intravenous drug abuser, who was
diagnosed with Hepatitis-C, in November 1999. He was a symptomatic.
The diagnosis was prompted by an abnormal liver function test,
on a routine yearly health evaluation. At the time of evaluation
he had been off illicit drugs for at least five years.
On physical evaluation, the liver was slightly and rather on the
firm side. The rest of his physical exam was otherwise not significant.
Laboratory test revealed elevated liver enzymes. Subsequent screening
for hepatitis B and C was positive for the B surface antibody
and HCV antibody. The hepatitis C RNA quantitative test by the
Chiron method done on 11/22/99 was 2,650,000. A repeat quantitative
hepatitis C viral RNA by PCR done on 10/20/2000 was 392,000.
On 9/14/2001, HCV RNA quantitative by PCR method revealed a vital
load of >850,000; with a sensitivity limit of 300,000 - 850,000.
At this point, Trilovin Liver Formula was started on the recommended
dose, in addition to all the other supplements he had always taken.
The patient was very diligent in taking his supplements. On 7/15/2002,
the HCV RNA quantitative by PCR method revealed a viral load of
334,000; with a sensitivity limit of 300,000-850,000.
The above laboratory finding suggests that the addition on Trilovin
Liver formula may have affected the remarkable drop in the Hepatitis
C rival load in this patient. It is worthwhile to mention that
from 7/7/99 to 9/14/2001, the patient was on another popular brand
of Silymarin supplement, prior to being placed on Trilovin Liver
Given the above encouraging and very preliminary finding, in this
patient, Trilovin Liver formula deserves an expanded study, to
further elucidate its value in the treatment of Hepatitis-C.
This expanded study is all the more cogent, in the light of the
poor response to conventional treatment by a large section of
the population in the U.S.
This report was submitted by:
CHIEDU J. NCHEKWUBE, M.D.,F.A.A.F.P., FAMILY MEDICINE AND WELLNESS
novel furostanol saponin from Tribulus terrestris of Bulgarian origin
J, Dinchev D, Klaiber I, Mika S, Kostova I, Kraus W.
Department of Chemistry, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart,
The phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Tribulus
terrestris of Bulgarian origin has resulted in the isolation of
the novel furostanol saponin 1, named tribol, together with the
known spirostanol saponins 2 and 3 and sitosterol glucoside. The
structure of tribol was determined as (25R)-furost-5(6)-ene-3beta,16,26-triol-3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-glucopyranoside
(1) by spectral analysis, including extensive 1D and 2D-NMR experiments.
of antihypertensive mechanism of Tribulus terrestris in 2K1C hypertensive
rats: role of tissue ACE activity
Sharifi AM, Darabi R, Akbarloo N.
Life Sci. 2003 Oct 24;73(23):2963-71.
Department of Pharmacology, Razi Institute for Drug Research and
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, School of Medicine, Iran
University of Medical Sciences, PO Box 14155-6183 Tehran, Iran.
Tribulus terrestris is a natural herb used for treating many diseases
including hypertension. According to previous reports, aqueous extract
of tribulus fruits may have some antihypertensive effect with an
unknown mechanism. The present study investigated the antihypertensive
mechanism of tribulus in 2K1C hypertensive rats by measurement of
circulatory and local ACE activity in aorta, heart, kidney and lung.
Four groups of rats were selected; control, sham, operated or hypertensive
and tribulus treated hypertensive group. Hypertension was induced
using silver clip on renal artery by surgery. Four weeks after surgery,
a single daily dose of 10 mg/kg of lyophilized aqueous extract of
tribulus fruit were given orally to 2K1C rats for four weeks. ACE
activity was determined by high performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC). Blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method. The
systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly increased in 2K1C
rats compared to control rats. The SBP of tribulus fed hypertensive
rats was significantly decreased compared to hypertensive rats.
The ACE activity in all tissues of 2K1C rats including: aorta, heart,
kidney, lung as well as serum were significantly increased compared
to normal rats. The ACE activity in all tissues of tribulus fed
hypertensive rats was significantly lower than that of hypertensive
rats, which was more pronounced in kidney. These results indicated
that there is a negative correlation between consumption of tribulus
and ACE activity in serum and different tissues in 2K1C rats.
of puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) extract (protodioscin): an
evaluation using a rat model
Gauthaman K, Ganesan AP, Prasad RN.
J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Apr;9(2):257-65.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National University Hospital,
National University of Singapore, Singapore.
OBJECTIVE: Apart from its claims for improvement of sexual functions
in men, the puncturevine plant (Tribulus terrestris: TT) has long
been considered as an energizer and vitalizer in the indigenous
system of medicine. Sexual behavior and intracavernous pressure
(ICP) measurements were taken in rats to scientifically validate
the claim of TT [containing protodioscin (PTN)] as an aphrodisiac.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley
rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each. Group I
served as a control group and groups II, III, and IV were treated
with three different doses of TT extract (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg body
weight, respectively), orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Weight was
recorded and the rats from all four groups were subjected to sexual
behavior studies with primed females and various parameters namely
mount and intromission frequencies (MF and IF, respectively), mount,
intromission and ejaculation latencies (ML, IL, and EL, respectively)
as well as postejaculatory interval (PEI) were recorded. In addition,
blood pressure and ICP were recorded for all rats at the end of
study. RESULTS: Increases in body weight (by 9, 23, and 18% for
groups II, III & IV) and ICP (by 43% and 26% for groups III
and IV) were statistically significant compared to the control group.
Increases in MF (by 27% and 24%) and IF (by 19% and 22%) for the
groups III and IV were statistically significant. Decreases in ML
(by 16%, 23%, and 22% for groups II, III, and IV) and PEI (by 20%
for group III) were statistically significant compared to the control.
CONCLUSIONS: The weight gain and improvement in sexual behavior
parameters observed in rats could be secondary to the androgen increasing
property of TT (PTN) that was observed in our earlier study on primates.
The increase in ICP which confirms the proerectile aphrodisiac property
of TT could possibly be the result of an increase in androgen and
subsequent release of nitric oxide from the nerve endings innervating
the corpus cavernosum.
effect of saponin from Tribulus terrestris
Li M, Qu W, Wang Y, Wan H, Tian C.
Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Jun;25(6):420-2.
School of Life Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062.
OBJECTIVE: To study the hypoglycemic effect of saponin from Tribulus
terrestris L. METHOD: Alloxan was used to establish the diabetic
model in mice. Phenformin Hydrochlride Tables was used as the positive
control. The level of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and SOD
in serum were determined. RESULTS: The level of serum glucose could
be significantly reduced by saponin from Tribulus terrestris, which
was the rate of 26.25% and 40.67% in normal mice and diabetic mice
in respectively. The level of serum triglyceride could be reduced
23.35%. The saporin could also decrease the content of serum cholesterol.
Serum SOD activity of the mice was increased by the saponin. CONCLUSION:
Saponin from Tribulue terrestris could significantly reduce the
level of serum glucose.
active steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris
Bedir E, Khan IA, Walker LA.
Pharmazie. 2002 Jul;57(7):491-3.
National Center for Natural Products Research, University of Mississippi,
The steroidal saponin constituents obtained from Tribulus terrestris
were tested for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects. The spirostanol-based
steroidal saponins 1-3 exhibited remarkable activity against fungal
organisms (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) and cancer
cell lines [human malignant melanoma (SK-MEL), human oral epidermoid
carcinoma (KB), human breast ductal carcinoma (BT-549), and human
ovary carcinoma (SK-OV-3)], while none of the compounds possessing
the furostanol framework 4-7 showed activity. The most active spirostanol
glycoside, compound 3 exhibited a broad range of anticancer activity
against cell lines, SK-MEL, KB, BT-549 and SK-OV-3 at IC50s of 6.0,
7.0, 6.0 and 8.2 micrograms/ml, respectively, while compounds 1
and 2 showed selective cytotoxicity against SK-MEL at 6.7 and 9.1
micrograms/ml, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations
(MIC) in antifungal bioassay for compounds 1-3 varied from 1.5 to
6.2 micrograms/ml, which prompted to conclude certain structural
features are required for these bioactivities.
of Tribulus terrestris on body composition and exercise performance
in resistance-trained males
Antonio J, Uelmen J, Rodriguez R, Earnest C.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000 Jun;10(2):208-15.
Human Performance Laboratory, University of Nebraska, Kearney, NE
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the herbal
preparation Tribulus terrestris (tribulus) on body composition and
exercise performance in resistance-trained males. Fifteen subjects
were randomly assigned to a placebo or tribulus (3.21 mg per kg
body weight daily) group. Body weight, body composition, maximal
strength, dietary intake, and mood states were determined before
and after an 8-week exercise (periodized resistance training) and
supplementation period. There were no changes in body weight, percentage
fat, total body water, dietary intake, or mood states in either
group. Muscle endurance (determined by the maximal number of repetitions
at 100-200% of body weight) increased for the bench and leg press
exercises in the placebo group (p <.05; bench press +/-28.4%,
leg press +/-28.6%), while the tribulus group experienced an increase
in leg press strength only (bench press +/-3.1%, not significant;
leg press +/-28.6%, p <.05). Supplementation with tribulus does
not enhance body composition or exercise performance in resistance-trained
Tribulus terrestris L. saponin mixture on some smooth muscle preparations:
a preliminary study
Arcasoy HB, Erenmemisoglu A, Tekol Y, Kurucu S, Kartal M.
Boll Chim Farm. 1998 Dec;137(11):473-5.
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University
Tribulus terrestris L. is an annual plant which has been commonly
used in folk medicine as diuretic and against colic pains, hypertension
and hypercholesterolemia in Turkey. This study investigated the
effects of liophilized saponin mixture of this plant on several
smooth muscle preparations in vitro. The liophilized material was
obtained from dried and powdered T. terrestris L. by specific extraction
method for saponins. Median lethal dose (LD50) of saponin mixture
on Swiss albino mice was calculated according to Litchfield-Wilcoxon
method via i.p. route. LD50 and its 95% confidence limits were 813
and 739-894 mg.kg-1 respectively. Saponin mixture has caused a significant
decrease on peristaltic movements of isolated sheep ureter and rabbit
jejunum preparations in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). However
it has been observed no effect on isolated rabbit aorta and its
contractile response to KCl or noradrenaline (p > 0.05). According
to these results it has been suggested that T. terrestris L. or
its saponin mixture may be useful on some smooth muscle spasms or