chinensis - scientific studies
lignans from schisandra chinensis protect primary cultures of
rat cortical cells from glutamate-induced toxicity
Mertens-Talcott SU, Talcott ST, Percival SS.
Courtesy of; Kim SR, Lee MK, Koo KA, Kim SH, Sung SH, Lee NG,
Markelonis GJ, Oh TH, Yang JH, Kim YC.
J Neurosci Res. 2004 May 1;76(3):397-405.
A methanolic extract of dried schisandra fruit (schisandra chinensis
Baill.; schisandraceae) significantly attenuated the neurotoxicity
induced by L-glutamate in primary cultures of rat cortical cells.
Five dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans (deoxyschisandrin, gomisin
N, gomisin A, schisandrin, and wuweizisu C) were isolated from
the methanolic extract; their protective effects against glutamate-induced
neurotoxicity were then evaluated. Among the five lignans, deoxyschisandrin,
gomisin N, and wuweizisu C significantly attenuated glutamate-induced
neurotoxicity as measured by:
1). an inhibition in the increase of intracellular [Ca(2+)];
2). an improvement in the glutathione defense system, the level
of glutathione, and the activity of glutathione peroxidase; and
3). an inhibition in the formation of cellular peroxide. These
results suggest that dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra
chinensis may possess therapeutic potential against oxidative
neuronal damage induced by excitotoxin.
Natural occurrence of cancer-preventive geranylgeranoic
acid in medicinal herbs
Shidoji Y, Ogawa H.
J Lipid Res. 2004 Jun;45(6):1092-103
Geranylgeranoic acid (GGA; all-trans 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenoic
acid) has been shown to induce apoptosis in a human hepatoma-derived
cell line, HuH-7. We aimed not only to confirm the apoptogenic
properties of GGA and its derivatives, but also to search for
natural GGA in medicinal herbs. GGA induced apoptosis in human
hepatoma-derived cell lines, HuH-7, PLC/PRF-5, and mouse transformed
hepatocyte-derived cell line, MLE-10, in a dose- and time-dependent
manner, but failed to induce cell death in human hepatoblastoma-derived
HepG-2 and mouse primary hepatocytes in the same condition. Besides
GGA, 4,5-didehydro GGA, 14,15-dihydro GGA, and 2,3-dihydro GGA
were also active to induce cell death in HuH-7 cells, while 4,5-didehydro-10,11,
14,15-tetrahydro GGA, 4,5,8,9-tetrahydro GGA, farnesoic acid,
and geranylgeraniol were inert. By using liquid chromatography/mass
spectrometry, we found natural GGA as a negative ion of m/z 303.4
in a Chinese herb, schisandra chinensis, and schisandra GGA was
identified by derivatization with both mild methylation and catalytic
hydrogenation. Some other GGAs hydrogenated in the different degrees,
including phytanic acid (perhydro GGA), were also found in s.
chinensis. GGA and phytanic acid were detected in 24 out of 25
herbs tested. The present study is the first report of natural
GGA in medicinal herbs.
Analysis of the essential oil of schisandra
Li XN, Cui H, Song YQ, Liang YZ
Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2001 Mar;36(3):215-9
Aim: To detect chemical components of the essential oil of schisandra
Methods: The essential oil was analyzed by means of gas chromatography
and mass spectrometry (GC/MS), heuristic evolving latent projections
(HELP), resolution and overall volume integration method. The
HELP method along with the data from GC/MS can be used to conduct
the peak purity examination and resolution of overlapping peaks
so as to obtain a pure chromatogram and MS spectrum of each component.
Results: Fifty-six components were separated and 49 of them were
qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. All the components
represent about 98% of the total content.
Conclusion: The resolved pure chromatogram and MS spectrum can
greatly enhance the reliability of similar searches in the commercial
MS database and thus contribute to the accuracy of the qualitative
and quantitative analysis of the essential oil.
info about Schisandra chinensis