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Bibliography and References
color="#FF33CC">Experimental and Clinical data. Ultimate & Complete List of Scientific Articles (Abstracts).


Planta Med. 2009 Feb;75(2):
Olsson EM, von Schéele B, Panossian AG.

Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue.

The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of the standardised extract SHR-5 of roots of RHODIOLA ROSEA L. in the treatment of individuals suffering from stress-related fatigue. The phase III clinical trial took the form of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with parallel groups. Participants, males and females aged between 20 and 55 years, were selected according to the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare diagnostic criteria for fatigue syndrome. A total of 60 individuals were randomised into two groups, one ( N = 30) of which received four tablets daily of SHR-5 extract (576 mg extract/day), while a second ( N = 30) received four placebo tablets daily. The effects of the extract with respect to quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire), symptoms of fatigue (Pines' burnout scale), depression (Montgomery -Asberg depression rating scale - MADRS), attention (Conners' computerised continuous performance test II - CCPT II), and saliva cortisol response to awakening were assessed on day 1 and after 28 days of medication. Data were analysed by between-within analyses of variance. No serious side effects that could be attributed to the extract were reported. Significant post-treatment improvements were observed for both groups (placebo effect) in Pines' burnout scale, mental health (SF-36), and MADRS and in several CCPT II indices of attention, namely, omissions, commissions, and Hit RT SE. When the two groups were compared, however, significant effects of the SHR-5 extract in comparison with the placebo were observed in Pines' burnout scale and the CCPT II indices omissions, Hit RT SE, and variability. Pre- VERSUS post-treatment cortisol responses to awakening stress were significantly different in the treatment group compared with the control group. It is concluded that repeated administration of R. ROSEA extract SHR-5 exerts an anti-fatigue effect that increases mental performance, particularly the ability to concentrate, and decreases cortisol response to awakening stress in burnout patients with fatigue syndrome. CCCPT II:Conners' computerised continuous performance test II HPA:hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ICD:International Classification of Diseases MADRS:Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale Qol:quality of life.


Daphne van Diermena, Andrew Marstona, Juan Bravob, Marianne Reistb, Pierre-Alain Carruptb and Kurt Hostettmanna

Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots

Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots


Elsevier B.V.
Pamela Iheozor-Ejiofora and Estera Szwajcer Dey

aLund University, Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Box 124, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
Extraction of rosavin from Rhodiola rosea root using supercritical carbon dioxide with water

In this study, a new extraction method for the isolation of rosavin from dried crushed roots of Rhodiola rosea is being developed using supercritical CO2 and water. Rosavin extracts quantitatively and qualitatively were compared to commonly used solvents such as methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate. By HPLC analysis rosavin was found to be the dominant compound in extracts obtained by both extraction methods. Quantitative differences were observed between the two extraction methods. Among the solvents, methanol yielded 3.3% while ethanol only 1.2% of rosavin. Supercritical CO2 and water at extraction temperature 80 °C and 5 h yielded 4.5% of rosavin.


Phytomedicine. 2009 Sep;16(9):830-8. Epub 2009 Apr 28.
Chen QG, Zeng YS, Qu ZQ, Tang JY, Qin YJ, Chung P, Wong R, Hägg U.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
The effects of Rhodiola rosea extract on 5-HT level, cell proliferation and quantity of neurons at cerebral hippocampus of depressive rats.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Rhodiola rosea extract and depression on the serotonin (5-HT) level, cell proliferation and quantity of neurons at cerebral hippocampus of depressive rats induced by Chronic Mild Stress (CMS). Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (10 per group): normal control group, untreated depressive rat model group, negative control group, positive control group, low dosage Rhodiola rosea extract (1.5g/kg) group, medium dosage Rhodiola rosea extract (3g/kg) group and high dosage Rhodiola rosea extract (6g/kg) group. After the depressive rats induced by CMS had received Rhodiola rosea extract for 3 weeks, the 5-HT levels at cerebral hippocampus were detected by high performance liquid chromatography. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected in vivo to label the proliferating cells at hippocampus, and morphometry was used to count the hippocampal neurons. The results showed that the 5-HT level of the three experimental groups had recovered to normal status. The immunohistochemistry of hippocampus BrdU positive cells had returned to the normal level in the group of depressive rats with low dosage Rhodiola rosea extract. In conclusion the results demonstrated that Rhodiola rosea extract could improve 5-HT level in hippocampus in depressive rats, and low dosage Rhodiola rosea could induce neural stem cell proliferation at hippocampus to return to normal level, repairing the injured neurons at hippocampus.


Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) (J Psychopharmacol), published in United States. (Language: eng)
Mattioli, Laura (L); Perfumi, Marina (M);

Department of Experimental Medicine and Public Health, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy.
Rhodiola rosea L. extract reduces stress- and CRF-induced anorexia in rats.

Rhodiola rosea L. is one of the most popular adaptogen and anti-stress plants in European and Asiatic traditional medicine. Its pharmacological properties appear to depend on its ability to modulate the activation of several components of the complex stress-response system. Exposure to both physical and psychological stress reduces feeding in rodents. The aim of this work was thus to determine whether in rats an hydroalcoholic R. rosea extract standardized in 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside (RHO) reverses hypophagia induced by (1) physical stress due to 60 min immobilization; (2) intracerebroventricular injection of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF, 0.2 microg/rat), the major mediator of stress responses in mammals; (3) intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 microg/kg); (4) intraperitoneal administration of fluoxetine (FLU, 8 mg/kg). The effect of the same doses of the plant extract was also tested in freely-feeding and in 20 h food-deprived rats. RHO was administered acutely by gavage to male Wistar rats 1 h before the experiments. The results show that at 15 and 20 mg/kg, RHO reversed the anorectic effects induced both by immobilization and by intracerebroventricular CRF injection. Moreover, at the same doses, RHO failed to reduce the anorectic effect induced both by LPS and FLU, and did not modify food intake in both freely-feeding and food-deprived rats. These findings strongly demonstrated that RHO is able selectively to attenuate stress-induced anorexia, providing functional evidence of claimed adaptogen and anti-stress properties of Rhodiola rosea L.


Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Jun;16(3):305-15.Walker TB, Robergs RA.

Exercise Physiology Laboratory, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131, USA.
Does Rhodiola rosea possess ergogenic properties?

Rhodiola rosea is an herb purported to possess adaptogenic and ergogenic properties and has recently been the subject of increased interest The purpose of this article was to review and summarize recent investigations of the potential performance-enhancing properties of Rhodiola rosea. Such studies have generated equivocal results. Several investigations conducted in Eastern Europe have indicated that Rhodiola rosea ingestion may produce such positive effects as improved cognitive function and reduced mental fatigue. Other research from this region has illustrated enhanced endurance exercise performance in both humans and rats. Studies conducted in Western Europe and in North America have indicated that Rhodiola rosea may possess substantial antioxidant properties but have produced mixed results when attempting to demonstrate an ergogenic effect during exercise in humans.


Asian Nat Prod Res. 2006 Jan-Mar;8(1-2):159-65.Cao LL, Du GH, Wang MW.

Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China.
The effect of salidroside on cell damage induced by glutamate and intracellular free calcium in PC12 cells.

Salidroside (Sald), was extracted from Rhodiola rosea L, a traditional Chinese medicine which has been used for long time for anti-aging, anti-cancer and anti-oxidative stress etc. In present experiment, salidroside could protect the PC12 cell against injuries caused by exposure of PC12 cells to 2 mmol/L glutamate for 15 min followed by incubation with serum-free medium for 24 h, which resembled the excitotoxin in vivo system. Furthermore, saldroside could decrease the [Ca2+]i of PC12 cells in Mg2+-free Hanks' solution and D-Hanks' solution but there was no effect on basal [Ca2+]i in Hanks' solution. The studies also indicated that salidroside inhibited the increases of [Ca2+]i induced by KCl and glutamate. In conclusion, salidroside may protect PC12 cell against glutamate excitotoxic damage through suppressing the excessive entry of Ca2+ and the release of the calcium stores.


Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006;15(3):425-32.Kwon YI, Jang HD, Shetty K.

Laboratory of Food Technology, Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.
Evaluation of Rhodiola crenulata and Rhodiola rosea for management of type II diabetes and hypertension.

The current study, we investigated 2 species of the genus Rhodiola for the inhibition of alpha-amylase,alpha-glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Water extracts of Rhodiola crenulata had the highest alpha-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50,98.1 microg total phenolic /ml) followed by ethanol extract of R.crenulata (IC50, 120.9 microg total phenolic/ml) and ethanol extract of R.rosea (IC50, 173.4 microg total phenolic /ml). Ethanol R.rosea (IC50, 44.7 microg total phenolic/ml), water extract of R.rosea (IC50, 52.3 microg total phenolic/ml), water extract of R.crenulata (IC50, 60.3 microg total phenolic /ml) and ethanol extract of R.crenulata (IC50, 60.2 microg total phenolic/ml) also showed significant alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracts was compared to standard tyrosol, which was significantly detected in the extracts using HPLC. Tyrosol had strong alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50, 70.8 microg total phenolic/ml) but did not have any inhibitory effect on the alpha-amylase activity. Results suggested that alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of both Rhodiola extracts correlated to the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of the extracts. The ability of the above Rhodiola extracts to inhibit rabbit lung angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) was investigated. The ethanol extracts of R.rosea had the highest ACE inhibitory activity (38.5 %) followed by water extract of R.rosea (36.2 %) and R.crenulata (15.4 %).


Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005 Nov;36(6):820-3, 846.
Effect of salidroside on bone marrow cell cycle and expression of apoptosis-related proteins in bone marrow cells of bone marrow depressed anemia mice.
Zhang XS, Zhu BD, Hung XQ, Chen YF.
Department of Histology, Embryology and Neurobiology, West China School of Preclinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of salidroside on bone marrow cell cycle and expression of apoptosis-related proteins in bone marrow cells (BMCs) of bone marrow depressed anemia mice, and to explore its mechanism for hematopoietic regulation. METHODS: The effect of salidroside on peripheral blood cells, BMCs, and bone marrow cell cycle in bone marrow depressed anemia mice was detected by automatic blood cell analysator, white blood count and flow cytometry (FCM)respectively,and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax of BMCs was detected by immunohistochemistry method simultaneously. RESULTS: It was found that low-dose and high-dose salidroside obviously elevated white blood cells and BMCs, that low-dose salidroside significantly increased platelets and promoted G0/G1-S phase and S-G2/M phase transition of BMCs, that high-dose salidroside markedly promoted S-G2/M phase transition of BMCs, and that both low-dose and high-dose salidroside obviously elevated the proliferation index and the ratio of G2/M phase cells. Additionally, the expression of Bcl-2 in BMCs was increased in low-dose and high-dose salidroside groups, especially the increase was significant in the low-dose salidroside group; moreover, the expression of Bax in BMCs was reduced significantly in both low-dose and high-dose salidroside groups. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that salidroside may promote the recovery of hematopoietic function of the bone marrow depressed anemia in mice by ending off G0/G1-phase arrest, accelerating G0/G1-S phase and S-G2/M phase transition, up-regulating Bcl-2 expression, down-regulating Bax expression, and inhibiting BMCs apoptosis.


Phytother Res. 2005 Sep;19(9):740-3.Ming DS, Hillhouse BJ, Guns ES, Eberding A, Xie S, Vimalanathan S, Towers GH.
Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Bioactive compounds from Rhodiola rosea (Crassulaceae).

The methanol extract of the underground part of Rhodiola rosea was found to show inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a 95% ethanol extract from the stems of R. rosea led to the isolation of five compounds: gossypetin-7-O-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), rhodioflavonoside (2), gallic acid (3), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid (4) and p-tyrosol (5). Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR, MS and NMR data, as well as by comparison with those of the literature. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antibacterial and antiprostate cancer cell activities. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited activity against Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 50 microg/mL and 100 microg/mL, respectively. Cytotoxicity studies of 1 and 2 also displayed activity against the prostate cancer cell line with IC(50) values of 50 microg/mL and 80 microg/mL, respectively. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.)


J Strength Cond Res. 2005 May;19(2):358-63.Colson SN, Wyatt FB, Johnston DL, Autrey LD, Fitzgerald YL, Earnest CP.
Department of Health Sciences, McLennan Community College, Waco, Texas 76708, USA.
Cordyceps sinensis- and Rhodiola rosea-based supplementation in male cyclists and its effect on muscle tissue oxygen saturation.

Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) and Rhodiola rosea (Rr) are herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a multitude of ailments as well as to enhance performance. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of a formula containing Cs and Rr (Cs-Rr) on circulatory dynamics, specifically muscle tissue oxygen saturation (Sto(2)), in male subjects during maximal exercise. This study followed a double blind, randomized, placebo-treatment, pre-post test design. Capsules were administered to 8 subjects who were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The treatment group received Cs-Rr, and the control group received a placebo. All subjects performed 2 exercise stress tests to volitional fatigue on a cycle load ergometer. There were no significant (p </= 0.05) differences in Sto(2) slope, Sto(2) threshold (Sto(2T)), Vo(2)max, ventilatory threshold (V(T)), or time to exhaustion (T(E)) between or within the treatment or control group. In conclusion, Cs-Rr did not significantly enhance Sto(2).


Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2005 May;25(5):445-8.Li J, Fan WH, Ao H.
Department of Cardiac Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai.
Effect of rhodiola on expressions of Flt-1, KDR and Tie-2 in rats with ischemic myocardium.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of rhodiola on expression of vascular endothelial growth factors receptors (VEGFR) in myocardium of rats after myocardial infarction. METHODS: On the basis of successful establishment of myocardial infarction rat model, the experimental animals were divided into the model group, the rhodiola group, the positive control group and the sham-operated group, they were sacrificed after 6 weeks feeding. Their hearts were resected and embedded in paraffin to make sections with standard immunohistochemistry stain. Then the stained slices were analyzed in the IMS cell imagine analysis system using immunohistochemical quantitative analysis software. The field of vision of left ventricular myocardial tissue in three sites selected from the marginal area of infarction in each slice were determined, the mean value was then converted to positive area. Meanwhile, the mean optical density (OD) was calculated and the various expressions of VEGFR, i.e. Flt-1, KDR and angiopoietin receptor (Tie-2) were measured. RESULTS: The expressions of Flt-1 and Tie-2 in myocardial tissue were significantly increased in the rhodiola treated group after treatment, showing significant difference as compared with those in the positive control group and the model group (P < 0.05). The expression of KDR in myocardium after rhodiola intervention was higher than that in the sham-operated and nonintervened group (P < 0.05), but insignificantly different to that in the positive control group and model group. CONCLUSION: Rhodiola could improve angiogenesis to ameliorate myocardial ischemia by regulating the expression of Flt-1 and Tie-2 in ischemic myocardium.


Biofactors. 2004;20(3):147-59.De Sanctis R, De Bellis R, Scesa C, Mancini U, Cucchiarini L, Dacha M.
Istituto di Chimica Biologica "Giorgio Fornaini", Universita degli Studi di Urbino "Carlo Bo", Urbino (PU), Italy.
In vitro protective effect of Rhodiola rosea extract against hypochlorous acid-induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes.

Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is a plant living at high altitudes in Europe and Asia. Its roots have long been used in the traditional medical system of these geographical areas to increase the organism resistance to physical stress; today, it has become an important component of many dietary supplements. In this study we investigate the antioxidant capacity of the R. rosea aqueous extract evaluating its ability to counteract some of the main damages induced by hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a powerful oxidant generated by activated phagocytes, to human erythrocytes. Ascorbic acid was used as a reference substance because of its physiological HOCl-scavenging ability. Our study demonstrates that R. rosea is able to significantly protect, in a dose-dependent manner, human RBC from glutathione (GSH) depletion, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) inactivation and hemolysis induced by the oxidant. Furthermore, we demonstrate that R. rosea aqueous extract acts from the inside of the erythrocyte suggesting a probable involving of cell components. The protection on GSH afforded by the R. rosea extract with respect to ascorbic acid, occurred also if added 2 or 5 min. later than the oxidant, suggesting a more rapid or powerful effect.


Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(24):3113-22.Tolonen A, Uusitalo J.
Novamass Analytical Ltd, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland.
Fast screening method for the analysis of total flavonoid content in plants and foodstuffs by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with polarity switching.

A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) method based on time-of-flight (TOF) MS with polarity switching and continuous exact mass measurement using a LockSpray ion source was developed for fast evaluation of the total flavonoid content in plants and foodstuffs. No complicated sample preparation was needed, but only a dilution of the extracts. A fast generic gradient elution and wide mass range acquisition was used with good sensitivity. The total analysis time was only 23 min. The ion chromatograms for flavonoid compounds were automatically extracted, and the fragmentation patterns obtained using positive ion mode and exact mass data for both polarities were used for the tentative identification of compounds. Software-based automated searching of molecular ions for flavonoids and their glycosides (xylosides/arabinosides, rhamnosides, glucosides/galactosides) from total ion chromatograms was used. The compounds were quantified using quercetin, quercitrin, rutin and kuromanine as external standards and dextromethorphan as an internal standard. The detection limits ranged from 0.01-0.04 mug/mL, while the quantitation ranges obtained were 0.2-10 mug/mL for anthocyanins and 0.2-4 mug/mL for the other flavonoids. The accuracies within these ranges varied between 80-120% and precision was in the range 0-14% (relative standard deviation). Flavonoid contents of two medicinal plants (Hypericum perforatum and Rhodiola rosea), two grape red wines, two orange juices and two green teas were evaluated using the method, and the results obtained were in good agreement with those published previously.


Biomed Chromatogr. 2004 Oct;18(8):550-8.
Tolonen A, Gyorgy Z, Jalonen J, Neubauer P, Hohtola A.
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland.
LC/MS/MS identification of glycosides produced by
biotransformation of cinnamyl alcohol in Rhodiola rosea compact callus aggregates.
Cinnamyl alcohol was added to the media of compact callus aggregates (CCA) of Rhodiola
rosea for stimulating the production of cinnamyl glycosides. The biotransformation reaction
produced high amounts of rosin, while only a very low amount of rosavin was produced. As
the consumption rate of cinnamyl alcohol was much higher than production of rosin, the
aqueous methanol extracts of compact callus aggregates were studied by liquid
chromatography-mass spectrometric methods and four new unexpected biotransformation
products of cinnamyl alcohol were identified.


Fitoterapia. 2004 Sep;75(6):612-4.Akgul Y, Ferreira D, Abourashed EA, Khan IA.
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Ege, Bornova, Izmir 35100, Turkey.
Lotaustralin from Rhodiola rosea roots.
Lotaustralin was isolated as a mixture of two diastereoisomeric forms from the methanol extract of Rhodiola rosea roots, together with the known compounds rosavin, rosarin, rosin, rosiridin, salidroside, and beta-sitosterol. The structure of lotaustralin was established by 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, including 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HMBC, and FAB and HR MS.


Bull Exp Biol Med. 2004 Jul;138(1):63-64.Abidov M, Grachev S, Seifulla RD, Ziegenfuss TN.
Center of Modern Medicine, Ministry of Defense Industry of Russian Federation; I. M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy; Russian Center for Physical Culture Improvement, Moscow; Pinnacle Institute of Health and Human Performance, Wadsworth Medical Center, Wadsworth.
Extract of Rhodiola rosea Radix Reduces the Level of C-Reactive Protein and Creatinine Kinase in the Blood.
The effects of extracts of Rhodiola rosea radix on blood levels of inflammatory C-reactive protein and creatinine kinase were studied in healthy untrained volunteers before and after exhausting exercise. Rhodiola rosea extract exhibited an antiinflammatory effect and protected muscle tissue during exercise.


Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004 Jun;14(3):298-307.De Bock K, Eijnde BO, Ramaekers M, Hespel P.
Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy in the Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics Laboratory at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Tervuursevest 101, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute and 4-week Rhodiola rosea intake on physical capacity, muscle strength, speed of limb movement, reaction time, and attention. METHODS: PHASE I: A double blind placebo-controlled randomized study (n= 24) was performed, consisting of 2 sessions (2 days per session). Day 1: One hour after acute Rhodiola rosea intake (R, 200-mg Rhodiola rosea extract containing 3% rosavin + 1% salidroside plus 500 mg starch) or placebo (P, 700 mg starch) speed of limb movement (plate tapping test), aural and visual reaction time, and the ability to sustain attention (Fepsy Vigilance test) were assessed. Day 2: Following the same intake procedure as on day 1, maximal isometric knee-extension torque and endurance exercise capacity were tested. Following a 5-day washout period, the experimental procedure was repeated, with the treatment regimens being switched between groups (session 2). PHASE II: A double blind placebo-controlled study (n = 12) was performed. Subjects underwent sessions 3 and 4, identical to Phase I, separated by a 4-week R/P intake, during which subjects ingested 200 mg R/P per day. RESULTS: PHASE I: Compared with P, acute R intake in Phase I increased (p <.05) time to exhaustion from 16.8 +/- 0.7 min to 17.2+/- 0.8 min. Accordingly, VO2peak (p <.05) and VCO2peak (p<.05) increased during R compared to P from 50.9 +/- 1.8 ml x min(-1) x kg(- )1 to 52.9 +/- 2.7 ml x min(-10) x kg(-1) (VO2peak) and from 60.0 +/- 2.3 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1) to 63.5+/- 2.7 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1) (VCO2peak). Pulmonary ventilation (p =.07) tended to increase more during R than during P (P: 115.9+/- 7.7 L/min; R: 124.8 +/- 7.7 L/min). All other parameters remained unchanged. PHASE II: Four-week R intake did not alter any of the variables measured. CONCLUSION: Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise capacity in young healthy volunteers. This response was not altered by prior daily 4-week Rhodiola intake.


Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2004 Mar;15(3):382-6.Yan X, Wang Y, Guo S, Shang X.College of Life Sciences, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China.
Seasonal variations in biomass and salidroside content in roots of Rhodiola sachalinensis as affected by gauze and red film shading
Rhodiola sachalinensis A. Bor, a perennial herb, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is mainly distributed in mountains at the altitudes of 1,700-2,500 m. It is a typical alpine plant and a very important medicinal plant with high activities of anti-fatigue, anti-senescence, and anti-radiation, due to the secondary metabolite salidroside in its root. Our previous findings have proven that red light promotes salidroside synthesis remarkably but decreases biomass insignificantly, resulting in a higher yield of salidroside in roots of Rh. sachalinensis in a greenhouse. In order to investigate the influences of shading and red light on seasonal variations in biomass and salidroside content in Rh. sachalinensis roots, the effects on 3 or 4 years old Rh. sachalinensis plants in a nursery in Daxinganling Mountain (124 degrees 02' E, 50 degrees 30' N) were studied in 2001. Compared to the control (CK) of full sunlight, 6 treatments with neutral transparent film and gauze, or red film alone had been conducted for 131 days. In treatment I, Rh. sachalinensis was shaded with neutral transparent film and gauze to achieve an irradiance 51.8% of full sunlight. In treatment II, the plants were shaded by red film alone, but the irradiance was as that in treatment I. In treatments III, IV, V and VI, neutral transparent film and gauze were originally used on May 8, then shifted to red film on Jun 3, July 4, August 4 and September 2, respectively and all experiments stopped on September 16, 2001. Rh. sachalinensis roots were harvested on 2-4th from June to September and finally on September 16, and root-biomass and salidroside content were measured. Root-biomass in plants decreased significantly under shading with neutral transparent film and gauze compared to the control with full sunlight, but little variations in salidroside content and yield. In comparison with shading by neutral transparent film and gauze, root-biomass reduced lightly and salidroside content and yield in roots were increased remarkably under red-film shading. At the end of the season, salidroside content under red light was 163% in 3-year-old and 155% in 4-year-old Rh. sachalinensis roots; whereas salidroside yields were 144% in 3-year-old and 145% in 4-year-old Rh. sachalinensis roots to those in plants under shading. The results also showed that the enhancement in the salidroside content and yield were little related to the duration of red film shading, which implied that in order to increase salidroside content and get higher salidroside yield, but less affect root-biomass, Rh. sachalinensis may be shaded with red film just several days before harvest.


Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Mar;36(3):504-9.Earnest CP, Morss GM, Wyatt F, Jordan AN, Colson S, Church TS, Fitzgerald Y, Autrey L, Jurca R, Lucia A.
Center for Human Performance and Nutrition Research, The Cooper Institute Center for Human Performance and Nutrition Research, Dallas, TX 75230, USA.
Effects of a commercial herbal-based formula on exercise performance in cyclists.
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: We examined the effects of a commercially marketed herbal-based formula purported to increase endurance on oxygen consumption (VO2) in 17 competitive category III/IV amateur cyclists [mean (SEM) age: 31.1 (1.8) yr; height: 178.5 (1.8) cm; weight: 77.1 (1.6) kg]. METHODS: Each cyclist participated in two (pre/post) cycling tests progressing 25 W.4 min(-1) starting at 100 W administered in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind fashion. The second trial was performed 14 d after the ingestion of a manufacturer recommended loading phase (4 d x 6 caps.d(-1)) and a maintenance phase (11 d x 3 caps.d(-1)). Three treatment capsules contained 1000 mg of Cordyceps sinensis (CS-4) and 300 mg Rhodiola rosea root extract as the primary ingredients; 800 mg of other ingredients included calcium pyruvate, sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, ribose, and adenosine and 200 mcg of chromium. RESULTS: Using a 2 x 2 ANOVA, we observed no significant treatment effect for any between or within group variables including peak VO2 [treatment 4.14 (0.2) L.min(-1); placebo 4.10 (0.2) L.min(-1)], time to exhaustion [treatment 38.47 (1.7) min; placebo 36.95 (1.8) min], peak power output (PO) [treatment 300.00 (12.1) W; placebo 290.63 (12.9) W], or peak heart rate. We also observed no differences for any subpeak exercise variable including the PO eliciting 2 mmol.L(-1) blood lactate (BLa) [treatment 201.00 (18.1) W; placebo 167.50 (19.2) W] and 4 mmol.L(-1) BLa [treatment 235.88 (15.8) W; placebo 244.78 (14.9) W], ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point, or Vo2 L.min(-1) gross efficiency at each stage. CONCLUSION: A 2-wk ingestion schema of a commercial herbal-based formula is insufficient to elicit positive changes in cycling performance.


Medicina (Kaunas). 2004;40(7):614-9Kucinskaite A, Briedis V, Savickas A.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Pharmacy Organization, Kaunas University of Medicine, A. Mickeviciaus 9, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania. Experimental analysis of therapeutic properties of Rhodiola rosea L. and its possible application in medicine
The paper presents a review of the scientific publications on Rhodiola rosea L. known for its adaptogenic characteristics. Biologically active substances salidroside, rosin, rosavin, rosarin and tyrosol, which are mainly found in plant rhizomes, demonstrate therapeutic effect. These active components effect the central nervous system by increasing the ability to concentrate, the mental and physical power; they are efficient in the asthenic states and improve general resistance of the cells and the organism against the harmful outer influence. They also prevent the heart system from stress and arrhythmias, and posses some antioxidant activity. Some data confirm that the Rhodiola rosea L. preparations stop the growth of the malignant tumors and metastases in the liver. Some preclinical and clinical data of the golden root preparations are discussed in the survey. The interaction of the herb with other medicines, its usage and effect, recommended doses, and its side effects are also reviewed in the paper.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2003 Apr;51(4):467-70.
Tolonen A, Pakonen M, Hohtola A, Jalonen J.
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, Finland.
Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Rhodiola rosea.

Rhodiola rosea L. (Golden Root) has been used for a long time as an adaptogen in Chinese traditional medicine and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. Along its known secondary metabolites tyrosol (1), salidroside (rhodioloside) (2), rosin (3), rosarin (4), rosavin (5), sachaliside 1 (6) and 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside
(7), four compounds were isolated from aqueous methanol extract of the plant and identified as cinnamyl-(6'-O-beta-xylopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8), 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-(6'-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (9), picein (10) and benzyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside (11) by UV, MS and NMR methods. Compounds 8 and 9 are new natural compounds whereas compounds 10 and 11 were isolated first time from R. rosea. Also the compounds 6 and 7 are isolated earlier only from the callus cultures of the plant but not from the differentiated plant.


Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2003 Jul-Aug;66(4):50-2.
Pashkevich IA, Uspenskaia IuA, Nefedova VV, Egorova AB.
Department of Animal Anatomy and Physiology, Krasnoyarsk State Medical Agricultural University, pr. Mira 88, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia.
Comparative evaluation of effects of p-tyrosol and Rhodiola rosea extract on bone marrow cells in vivo.

The effects of p-tyrosol and Rhodiola rosea extract on the hemopoietic system were compared on a model of subacute lead intoxication. No significant differences between the activity of two preparations were revealed by the study of plasma membrane blebbing, apoptosis, and necrosis processes in bone marrow. At the same time, p-tyrosol exhibited a more pronounced effect upon lipid peroxidation and offered significant protection against lead intoxication.


Bull Exp Biol Med. 2003 Aug;136(2):165-9.
Provalova NV, Skurikhin EG, Pershina OV, Minakova MY, Suslov NI, Dygai AM.
Institute of Pharmacology, Tomsk Research Center, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
Possible mechanisms underlying the effect of natural preparations on erythropoiesis under conditions of conflict situation.

We studied the effects of various natural preparations, including extracts of Siberian ginseng, Rhodiola rosea, bergenia, and ginseng and pantohematogen on erythropoiesis under conditions of conflict situation. The test preparations were divided into 2 groups depending on their modulatory effect on intensified erythropoiesis under conditions of conflict situation. Some of them reduced (extracts of ginseng, bergenia, and Rhodiola rosea), while others increased the degree of hyperplasia in the erythropoietic stem (extract of Siberian ginseng and pantohematogen). The regulatory effect of preparations depended
on activity of the corresponding neurotransmitter systems in the brain and local regulatory mechanisms of hemopoiesis.


J Mass Spectrom. 2003 Aug;38(8):845-53
Tolonen A, Hohtola A, Jalonen J.
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland.
Comparison of electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization techniques in the analysis of the main constituents from Rhodiola rosea extracts by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

Rhodiola rosea L. (Golden Root) has been used for a long time as an adaptogen in Chinese traditional medicine and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. A liquid chromatographic (LC) method with mass spectrometric (MS) detection based on selected ion monitoring (SIM) was developed for determining salidroside, sachaliside 1, rosin, 4-methoxycinnamyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside, rosarin, rosavin, cinnamyl-(6'-O-beta-xylopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-(6'-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside, rosiridin and benzyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside from the callus and plant extracts in one chromatographic run. Good linearity over the range 0.5-500 ng ml(-1) for salidroside, 2-2000 ng ml(-1) for rosavin and 2-500 ng ml(-1) for benzyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside was observed. The intra-assay accuracy and precision within quantitation ranges varied between -10.0 and +13.2% and between 0.7 and 9.0%, respectively. Optimization of the ionization process was p erformed with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization techniques using four different additive compositions for eluents in the LC/MS scan mode, using both positive and negative ion modes. The best ionization sensitivity for the compounds studied was obtained with electrospray ionization when using pure water without any additives as the aqueous phase.

Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Jul;26(7):1045-8
Kobayashi K, Baba E, Fushiya S, Takano F, Batkhuu J, Dash T, Sanchir C, Yoshizaki F.
Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, Sendai, Japan.
Screening of Mongolian plants for influence on amylase activity in mouse plasma and gastrointestinal tube.

Mongolian plants were screened for their influence on alpha-amylase activity in mouse plasma. Methanolic extracts of Geranium pratense, Rhodiola rosea, Ribes pullchelum and Vaccinium uliginosum inhibited the enzyme activity in isolated mouse plasma by greater than 40% and the effect was concentration dependent. Vaccinium uliginosum also showed a depressive effect on elevation of postprandial blood glucose to some extent.

Phytomedicine. 2003 Mar;10(2-3):95-105
Shevtsov VA, Zholus BI, Shervarly VI, Vol'skij VB, Korovin YP, Khristich MP, Roslyakova NA, Wikman G.
Centre of Sanitary and Epidemiological Inspection of the R.F. Ministry of Health, Moscow, Russia.
A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical study with an extra non-treatment group was performed to measure the effect of a single dose of standardized SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract on capacity for mental work against a background of fatigue and stress. An additional objective was to investigate a possible difference between two doses, one dose being chosen as the standard mean dose in accordance with well-established medicinal use as a psychostimulant/adaptogen, the other dose being 50% higher. Some physiological parameters, e.g. pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, were also measured. The study was carried out on a highly uniform population comprising 161 cadets aged from 19 to 21 years. All groups were found to have very similar initial data, with no significant difference with regard to any parameter. The study showed a pronounced antifatigue effect reflected in an antifatigue index defined as a ratio called AFI. The verum groups had AFI mean values of 1.0385 and 1.0195, 2 and 3 capsules respectively, whilst the figure for the placebo group was 0.9046. This was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001) for both doses (verum groups), whilst no significant difference between the two dosage groups was observed. There was a possible trend in favour of the lower dose in the psychometric tests. No such trend was found in the physiological tests.

Wilderness Environ Med. 2003 Spring;14(1):9-16
Wing SL, Askew EW, Luetkemeier MJ, Ryujin DT, Kamimori GH, Grissom CK.
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 841122, USA.
Lack of effect of Rhodiola or oxygenated water supplementation on hypoxemia and oxidative stress.

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of 2 potentially "oxygen promoting" dietary supplements on hypoxia and oxidative stress at a simulated altitude of 4600 m. METHODS: Fifteen volunteers (ages 20-33) received 3 separate 60-minute hypoxic exposures by breathing 13.6% oxygen at an ambient barometric pressure of 633 mm Hg (simulating the partial pressure of oxygen at 4600 m elevation). Each subject received, in random order, treatments of a 7-day supply of placebo, Rhodiola rosca, and an acute dose of stabilized oxygen dissolved in water. Arterialized capillary blood oxygen samples (PcO2) were measured at baseline and at 30 and 60 minutes of exposure. Pulse oximeter oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was measured at baseline and at every 10 minutes of hypoxic exposure. Oxidative stress markers measured included baseline and 60-minute exposure serum lipid peroxides (LPO) and urine malondialdehyde (MDA).
RESULTS: For each treatment group, PcO2 decreased by approximately 38 % from baseline to 60-minute hypoxic exposure. Similarly, SaO2 also decreased among groups from approximately 97 to 81%. Serum lipid peroxides increased significantly in the placebo group and decreased significantly from baseline in response to the stabilized oxygen treatment (P = .02); there was a trend for decreased LPO with the Rhodiola treatment (P = .10). There were no significant changes for MDA among groups. CONCLUSIONS: The 2 dietary supplements investigated did not have a significant effect on blood oxygenation after 60 minutes of sedentary hypoxic exposure. Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress was observed in the control group only. Both supplements appeared not to increase oxidative stress and may decrease free radical formation after hypoxic exposure compared with the control.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2003 Apr;51(4):467-70
Tolonen A, Pakonen M, Hohtola A, Jalonen J.
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland.
Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from Rhodiola rosea.
Rhodiola rosea L. (Golden Root) has been used for a long time as an adaptogen in Chinese traditional medicine and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. Along its known secondary metabolites tyrosol (1), salidroside (rhodioloside) (2), rosin (3), rosarin (4), rosavin (5), sachaliside 1 (6) and 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), four compounds were isolated from aqueous methanol extract of the plant and identified as cinnamyl-(6'-O-beta-xylopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8), 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-(6'-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (9), picein (10) and benzyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside (11) by UV, MS and NMR methods. Compounds 8 and 9 are new natural compounds whereas compounds 10 and 11 were isolated first time from R. rosea. Also the compounds 6 and 7 are isolated earlier only from the callus cultures of the plant but not from the differentiated plant.


Eksp Klin Farmakol 2002 Nov-Dec;65(6):57-9
Iaremii IN, Grigor'eva NF.
Medical Chemistry Department, Bukovinian State Medical Academy, vul. Bohomol'tsya 2, Chernivtsi 58000, Ukraine.
[Hepatoprotective properties of liquid extract of Rhodiola rosea]
The effect of a liquid extract from Rhodiola rosea on the functional state of rat liver with experimental toxic hepatitis was studied. The extract produces a hepatoprotective effect, as manifested by normalized activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, normalized content of medium-molecular-weight peptides, urea, and bilirubin, and reduced activity of alanine aminotransferase and glutathione-S-transferase in the blood plasma of rats with the toxic hepatitis model.


HerbalGram; J. of the American Botanical Council 2002;56:40-52
Brown RP, Gerbarg PL, Ramazanov Z.

Rhodiola rosea. A phytomedical overview.


In: Tasman A, Lieberman J, Kay J (eds.) Psychiatry. Wiley, W. Sussex, UK, 2nd edition, 2002
Brown RP, Gerbarg PG, Muskin PR

Alternative therapies in psychiatry.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2002 May;133(5):428-32

Provalova NV, Skurikhin EG, Pershina OV, Suslov NI, Minakova MY, Dygai AM, Gol'dberg ED.

Institute of Pharmacology, Tomsk Research Center, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.

Mechanisms Underling the Effects of Adaptogens on Erythropoiesis during Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation.
Abstract: we studied the effects of adaptogens extracts of Siberian ginseng, Rhodiola rosea, bergenia, and ginseng and pantohematogen, on erythropoiesis after paradoxical sleep deprivation. Adaptogens stimulated bone marrow erythropoiesis in the early stage, but decreased the count of bone marrow erythrokaryocytes 3-7 days after treatment. The effect of adaptogens on erythropoiesis is associated with modulation of the state of brain neurotransmitter systems followed by changes in functional activity of cells in the hemopoiesis-inducing microenvironment.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2002 Mar;133(3):261-4
Provalova NV, Skurikhin EG, Suslov NI, Dygai AM, Gol'dberg ED.

Institute of Pharmacology, Tomsk Research Center, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
Effects of Adaptogens on Granulocytopoiesis during Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation.
Abstract: we studied the effects of extracts from Siberian ginseng, Rhodiola rosea, bergenia, and ginseng (G115) and pantohematogen on granulocytopoiesis after paradoxical sleep deprivation. The effects of adaptogens on the blood system were most pronounced during hyperplasia of granulocytopoiesis. Natural preparations were divided into groups depending on their activity. Extracts of Siberian ginseng and Rhodiola rosea did not modulate granulocytopoiesis. Ginseng G115 extract suppressed granulocytopoiesis. Bergenia extract and pantohematogen produced ambiguous effects on the granulocytic hemopoietic stem. 2002
Abstracts of the Seminar on Rhodiola rosea
"Use and introduction of medicinal plants with adaptogen effects in Finland" 2002, June 18, Mikkeli, Finland

Economo A, Galambosi B
Anti Aging Center Europe, Agrifood Research Finland
Research history, utilization and marketing of adaptogen medicinal plants.
Abstract: The research of adaptogen medicinal plants has been started during 1960th years in the former Soviet Union, in the Institute of Biologically Active Substances at Vladivostok. The research have been focused firstly on the so-called "first generation of adaptogens", like Panax, Acanthopanax and later on the "second generation of adaptogen plants", as Leuzea, Rhodiola, Schizandra and Aralia mandschurica. The research results published mainly in Russian, have been utilized firstly increasing the stress tolerance of astronauts and increasing the productivity of top sportsmen. Later the results have spread in other countries, e.g. Sweden, East-European countries, USA:n. Presently the raw material of adaptogen species are collected from the nature ( Acanthopanax, Rhodiola, Schisandra ) or after introduction research from field cultivation ( Panax Leuzea ). Preparations based on adaptogen plants are popular in the market mainly of Russia, USA and its marketing is popular by e-mail as well. In Europe e.g. preparations of Rhodiola rosea are sold in Sweden, Finland , where it is an endemic plant and where its field cultivation has been started as well.

Phytochemistry 2002 Mar;59(6):655-61 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut
Rohloff J.
The Plant Biocentre, Department of Botany, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491, Trondheim, Norway.
Volatiles from rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea L.
Abstract: Terpenes and aroma volatiles from rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea L. from Norway have been isolated by both steam distillation and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis. The dried rhizomes contained 0.05% essential oil with the main chemical classes: monoterpene hydrocarbons (25.40%), monoterpene alcohols (23.61%) and straight chain aliphatic alcohols (37.54%). n-Decanol (30.38%), geraniol (12.49%) and 1,4-p-menthadien-7-ol (5.10%) were the most abundant volatiles detected in the essential oil, and a total of 86 compounds were identified in both the SD and HS-SPME samples. Geraniol was identified as the most important rose-like odour compound besides geranyl formate, geranyl acetate, benzyl alcohol and phenylethyl alcohol. Floral notes such as linalool and its oxides, nonanal, decanal, nerol and cinnamyl alcohol highlight the flowery scent of rose root rhizomes.

Altern Med Rev 2001; Jun, 6(3): 293-302.
Kelly GS.

Associate Editor, Alternative Medicine Review; Correspondence address: 179 Dwight St Apt 303, New Haven, CT 06511.
"Rhodiola rosea: A possible plant adaptogen."

Rhodiola rosea is a popular plant in traditional medical systems in Eastern Europe and Asian with a reputation for stimulating the nervous system, decreasing depression, enhancing work performance, eliminating fatigue, and preventing high altitude sickness. Rhodiola rosea has been categorised as an adaptogen by Russian researchers due to its observed ability to increase resistance to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical stresses. Its claimed benefits include antidepressant, anticancer, cardioprotective, and central nervous system enhancement. Research also indicates great utility in asthenia conditions (decline in work performance, sleep difficulties, poor appetite, irritability, hypertension, headaches, and fatigue) developing subsequent to intense physical or intellectual strain. The adaptogenic, cardiopulmonary protective, and central nervous system activities of Rhodiola rosea have been attributed primarily to its ability to influence levels and activity of monoamines and opioid peptides such as beta-endorphins.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2001; Apr, 49(4): 465-7.
Ganzera M, Yayla Y, Khan IA.
National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Mississippi, University 38677, USA.

"Analysis of the marker compounds of Rhodiola rosea L. (golden root) by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography.

Abstract: An HPLC method permitting the first simultaneous detection of 5 marker compounds (salidroside, rosarin, rosavin, rosin, rosiridin) of R. rosea was developed. A separation was achieved within 27 min by using C-18 column material, a phosphate buffer/acetonitrile gradient system and at a separation temperature of 60 degrees C. All five compounds could be detected at concentrations as low as 0.62 microg/ml and were clearly assignable in R. rosea plant material and commercial products. Therefore, this quantitative and qualitative applicability of the method offers efficient and reliable means for the evaluation of R. rosea and products thereof.

Eksp Klin Farmakol 2000 Jan-Feb;63(1):76-8
Spasov AA, Mandrikov VB, Mironova IA.
The effect of the preparation rodakson on the psychophysiological and physical adaptation of students to an academic load Volgograd State Medical Academy, Ministry of Public Health of the Russian Federation, Russia.
The effect of rhodaxon, an adaptogen preparation based on the Rhodiola rosea extract, upon the physical and intellectual working capacity and psychoemotional state of foreign students during their study in a Russian high school was evaluated. It was established that rhodaxon administration provided increase in the amount of veloergometric work accomplished and reliably increased the kinesthesiometric sensitivity. The drug also lead to marked increased in the general condition and a decrease in the level of psychic fatigue and situational anxiety. On the whole, the pharmacological properties of the rhodaxon preparation studied coincided with those reported for the gold root extract. The fact that the rhodaxon preparation contains no ethyl alcohol extends possibilities of the clinical administration of the new preparation.

Phytomedicine 2000; Oct, 7(5):389-99.
Boon-Niermeijer EK, van den Berg A, Wikman G, Wiegant FA.
Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

"Phyto-adaptogens protect against environmental stress-induced death of embryos from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis."

Abstract: The main purpose of the studies presented in this paper is twofold: 1) to evaluate whether phyto-adaptogens (Acanthopanax senticosus and Rhodiola rosea) are able to exert a protective action against stress-induced death of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis; and 2) whether a possible protective action by phyto-adaptogens can be explained by the induction of heat shock proteins. Enhancement in resistance by phyto-adaptogens was studied by applying plant extracts for a period of 20 hours to 3-day old larvae of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Subsequently they were exposed to a high and toxic dose of different environmental stressors. The following stress conditions were selected: a physical stress condition (heat shock: 43 degrees C for 4 minutes), an oxidative stress condition (superoxide radicals induced by menadione (600 microM for 2 hours)) and heavy metal-induced stress (copper (150 microM for 1 hour) or cadmium (20 microM during 1 hour)). Both Acanthopanax and Rhodiola exert a strong protective action against a lethal heat shock. These adaptogens also significantly protect against the negative effect of superoxide radicals as induced by menadione. With respect to the protective action against exposure to heavy metals a small but significant protection was observed against intoxication with copper or cadmium by the phyto-adaptogens. In summary, there appears to be a difference in efficiency in enhancing resistance to the various stress conditions used (heat shock>menadione>copper>cadmium). Based on the results presented in this paper, we can conclude that phyto-adaptogens are able to enhance the resistance against the different stress conditions tested in developing individuals of Lymnaea. Although the degree to which resistance is enhanced appears to depend on the type of stressor applied, our results confirm the definition of phyto-adaptogens as being universal enhancers of non-specific resistance against different kinds of stress conditions. With respect to the mechanism of enhanced resistance, the question was asked whether this protective action is caused by an induction of heat shock proteins (hsps), which are known to be involved in tolerance and adaptation. The phyto-adaptogens did not induce the synthesis of any of the hsps, nor did they modulate the normal heat shock induced synthesis of these stress proteins. We conclude that it is unlikely that hsps play a major role in obtaining an enhanced state of resistance provided by phyto-adaptogens.

Phytomedicine 2000; Oct, 7(5): 365-71.
Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, Gabrielian E, Wikman G, Wagner H.
Department of Neurology, Armenian State Medical University, Yerevan.
"Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue--a double blind cross-over study of a standardised extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty."

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated low-dose treatment with a standardised extract SHR/5 of rhizome Rhodiola rosea L, (RRE) on fatigue during night duty among a group of 56 young, healthy physicians. The effect was measured as total mental performance calculated as Fatigue Index. The tests chosen reflect an overall level of mental fatigue, involving complex perceptive and cognitive cerebral functions, such as associative thinking, short-term memory, calculation and ability of concentration, and speed of audio-visual perception. These parameters were tested before and after night duty during three periods of two weeks each: a) a test period of one RRE/placebo tablet daily, b) a washout period and c) a third period of one placebo/RRE tablet daily, in a double-blind cross-over trial. The perceptive and cognitive cerebral functions mentioned above were investigated using 5 different tests. A statistically significant improvement in these tests was observed in the treatment group (RRE) during the first two weeks period. No side-effects were reported for either treatment noted. These results suggest that RRE can reduce general fatigue under certain stressful conditions.

Eksp Klin Farmakol 2000 Sep-Oct;63(5):59-61 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut
Razina TG, Zueva EP, Amosova EN, Krylova SG.
Medicinal plant preparations used as adjuvant therapeutics in experimental oncology. [Article in Russian]
Tomsk Scientific Center, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Russia.
Experiments on mice inoculated with metastasing Lewis lung carcinoma showed that the antitumor and antimetastatic effects of cyclophosphan (cyclophosphamide) are potentiated by the extracts of phytopreparations based on Baikal scullcap (Scutellaria baikalensis), rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea), common licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and their principal acting components--baikalin, paratyrosol, and glycyrram.

Eksp Klin Farmakol 2000; Jul-Aug, 63(4): 29-31.
Maimeskulova LA, Maslov LN.
Laboratory of Experimental Cardiology, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk, Russia.

"Anti-arrhythmic effect of phytoadaptogens."

Abstract: Repeated prophylactic administration of plant adaptogen preparations based on extracts from rhodiola, eleutherococcus, leuzea, and ginseng, produced a pronounced antiarrhythmic effect on the model of adrenal arrhythmia in animals. Preliminary opioid receptor block by naloxone reduced the protective effect of phytopreparations in the adapted animals. Intravenous and intracerebroventricular administration of naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist) showed that the anti-arrhythmic effect of rhodiola extract proceeds through the activation of both central and peripheral opioid receptors.

Arch Pharm Res 2000; Aug, 23(4): 349-52.
Linh PT, Kim YH, Hong SP, Jian JJ, Kang JS.
College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Taejon, Korea.

"Quantitative determination of salidroside and tyrosol from the underground part of Rhodiola rosea by high performance liquid chromatography.
Abstract: A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to determine salidroside and tyrosol simultaneously in the Rhodiola rosea. The optimum condition was Nova-Pak C18 as stationary phase, 6.5% methanol in water as mobile phase and detection at UV 225 nm. The identification was carried out by comparing the retention time and IC/MS spectrum of the relevant peaks with those of isolated standards. The contents of salidroside and tyrosol in the samples gathered from various area in China were ranged over 1.3-11.1 mg/g and 0.3-2.2 mg/g, respectively.

Am J Clin Nutr 2000; Aug, 72(2 Suppl): 624S-36S.
Bucci LR.
Weider Nutrition International, Salt Lake City, UT 84104-4726, USA. lukeb@weider.com
"Selected herbals and human exercise performance."
Abstract: Herbs have been used throughout history to enhance physical performance, but scientific scrutiny with controlled clinical trials has only recently been used to study such effects. The following herbs are currently used to enhance physical performance regardless of scientific evidence of effect: Chinese, Korean, and American ginsengs; Siberian ginseng, mahuang or Chinese ephedra; ashwagandha; rhodiola; yohimbe; CORDYCEPS: fungus, shilajit or mummio; smilax; wild oats; Muira puama; suma (ecdysterone); Tribulus terrestris; saw palmetto berries; beta-sitosterol and other related sterols; and wild yams (diosgenin). Controlled studies of Asian ginsengs found improvements in exercise performance when most of the following conditions were true: use of standardized root extracts, study duration (>8 wk, daily dose >1 g dried root or equivalent, large number of subjects, and older subjects. Improvements in muscular strength, maximal oxygen uptake, work capacity, fuel homeostasis, serum lactate, heart rate, visual and auditory reaction times, alertness, and psychomotor skills have also been repeatedly documented. Siberian ginseng has shown mixed results. Mahuang, ephedrine, and related alkaloids have not benefited physical performance except when combined with caffeine. Other herbs remain virtually untested. Future research on ergogenic effects of herbs should consider identity and amount of substance or presumed active ingredients administered, dose response, duration of test period, proper experimental controls, measurement of psychological and physiologic parameters (including antioxidant actions), and measurements of performance pertinent to intended uses.

Phytomedicine 2000; Apr, 7(2): 85-9.
Spasov AA, Wikman GK, Mandrikov VB, Mironova IA, Neumoin VV.
Volgograd Medical Academy, Russia.
"A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen."

Abstract: The objective was to investigate the stimulating and normalizing effect of the adaptogen Rhodiola rosea extract SHR-5 in foreign students during a stressful examination period. The study was performed as a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled with low repeated dose regime. The study drug and the placebo were taken for 20 days by the students during an examination period. The physical and mental performance were assessed before and after the period, based on objective as well as on subjective evaluation. The most significant improvement in the SHR-5 group was seen in physical fitness, mental fatigue and neuro-motoric tests (p <0.01). The self-assessment of the general well-being was also significantly (p < 0.05) better in the verum group. No significance was seen in the correction of text tests or a neuro-muscular tapping test. The overall conclusion is that the study drug gave significant results compared to the placebo group but that the dose level probably was suboptimal.

ATN/Safe Goods Publishing, CT. 1999, pp. 88
Zakir Ramazanov, Maria del Mar Bernal Suarez
"New secrets of effective natural stress and weight management, using Rhodiola rosea and Rhodendron caucasicum".

Kensington Publishing Corp, NY. 1999, pp. 176
Carl Germano, Zakir Ramazanov

"Arctic root (Rhodiola rosea). The powerful new ginseng alternative"

Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999;893:154-75
Mattson MP, Pedersen WA, Duan W, et al.
Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying perturbed energy metabolism and neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.1999
Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.
Mattson MP, Pedersen WA, Duan W, Culmsee C, Camandola S.
Synaptic degeneration and death of nerve cells are defining features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), the two most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative disorders.
In AD, neurons in the hippocampus and basal forebrain (brain regions that subserve learning and memory functions) are selectively vulnerable. In PD dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra-striatum (brain regions that control body movements) selectively degenerate. Studies of postmortem brain tissue from AD and PD patients have provided evidence for increased levels of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired glucose uptake in vulnerable neuronal populations. Studies of animal and cell culture models of AD and PD suggest that increased levels of oxidative stress (membrane lipid peroxidation, in particular) may disrupt neuronal energy metabolism and ion homeostasis, by impairing the function of membrane ion-motive ATPases and glucose and glutamate transporters. Such oxidative and metabolic compromise may there-by render neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Studies of the pathogenic mechanisms of AD-linked mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins strongly support central roles for perturbed cellular calcium homeostasis and aberrant proteolytic processing of APP as pivotal events that lead to metabolic compromise in neurons. Specific molecular "players" in the neurodegenerative processes in AD and PD are being identified and include Par-4 and caspases (bad guys) and neurotrophic factors and stress proteins (good guys). Interestingly, while studies continue to elucidate cellular and molecular events occurring in the brain in AD and PD, recent data suggest that both AD and PD can manifest systemic alterations in energy metabolism (e.g., increased insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose metabolism). Emerging evidence that dietary restriction can forestall the development of AD and PD is consistent with a major "metabolic" component to these disorders, and provides optimism that these devastating brain disorders of aging may be largely preventable.

Herba Polonica Tom XLV 1999 Nr 2
Furmanowa M, Kedzia B, Hartwich M, and Kozlowski J
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Rhodiola Rosea L

Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999;893:154-75
Mattson MP, Pedersen WA, Duan W, Culmsee C, Camandola S.
Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying perturbed energy metabolism and neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. Synaptic degeneration and death of nerve cells are defining features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), the two most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative disorders. In AD, neurons in the hippocampus and basal forebrain (brain regions that subserve learning and memory functions) are selectively vulnerable. In PD dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra-striatum (brain regions that control body movements) selectively degenerate. Studies of postmortem brain tissue from AD and PD patients have provided evidence for increased levels of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired glucose uptake in vulnerable neuronal populations. Studies of animal and cell culture models of AD and PD suggest that increased levels of oxidative stress (membrane lipid peroxidation, in particular) may disrupt neuronal energy metabolism and ion homeostasis, by impairing the function of membrane ion-motive ATPases and glucose and glutamate transporters. Such oxidative and metabolic compromise may there-by render neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Studies of the pathogenic mechanisms of AD-linked mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins strongly support central roles for perturbed cellular calcium homeostasis and aberrant proteolytic processing of APP as pivotal events that lead to metabolic compromise in neurons. Specific molecular "players" in the neurodegenerative processes in AD and PD are being identified and include Par-4 and caspases (bad guys) and neurotrophic factors and stress proteins (good guys). Interestingly, while studies continue to elucidate cellular and molecular events occurring in the brain in AD and PD, recent data suggest that both AD and PD can manifest systemic alterations in energy metabolism (e.g., increased insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose metabolism). Emerging evidence that dietary restriction can forestall the development of AD and PD is consistent with a major "metabolic" component to these disorders, and provides optimism that these devastating brain disorders of aging may be largely preventable.

Eksp Klin Farmakol 1998; May-Jun, 61(3): 61-3.
Azizov AP, Seifulla RD.
Department of Biologically Active Substances,
All-Russian Research Institute of Physical Culture, Moscow, Russia.

"The effect of elton, leveton, fitoton and adapton on the work capacity of experimental animals."
Abstract: The test with running on a treadbane showed a 56% increase of working capacity in the control group of male albino mice on the 20th day of training. Oral administration of elton, leveton, phytoton, and adapton, as well as Leuzea and Rhodiola extracts and Schisandra chinensis tincture caused a statistically significant increase in the time of running on the treadbane of animals by the 10th day of medication. The increase in the working capacity of the animals was more marked by the 20th day. In the test of swimming "to the limit" adapton, phytoton, leveton, and elton increased to a greater extent the working capacity of male albino rats in diminishing succession (from 213 to 168%). Schisandra tincture and Rhodiola and Leuzea extracts also increased the swimming time of the animals by 135-159%.

Biofizika 1998; Mar-Apr, 43(2): 186-8, in Russian.
Bol'shakova IV, Lozovskaia EL, Sapezhinskii II.

"Antioxidant properties of a series of extracts from medicinal plants."

Abstract: Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants affected human central nervous system was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimised. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum > Eleutherococcus > Rhodiola > Leonurus > Aralia > Valeriana > Echinopanax > Schizandra > Panax ginseng.

Eksp Klin Farmakol 1998; Mar-Apr, 61(2):37-40, in Russian
Maimeskulova LA, Maslov LN.
Department of Experimental Cardiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences,
Tomsk Research Center, Russia.

"The anti-arrhythmia action of an extract of Rhodiola rosea and of n-tyrosol in models of experimental arrhythmias."

Abstract: A daily 8-day course of Rhodiolae fluidum extract (1 ml/kg; ED50 = 0.43 ml/kg)--a preparation from the group of adaptogens caused a marked preventive antiarrhythmic effect on models of adrenaline and CaCl2-induced, but not acontine, arrhythmias. Aglycone--n-tyrosol demonstrated a lower antiarrhythmic activity (ED50 = 16 mg/kg) than that of Rhodiola extract.

Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med. 1998; 125 (4): 424-6.
Maslov LN et. al.

"Mechanism of the anti-arrhytmic effect of the Rhodiola rosea extract."

Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter 1997; Oct-Dec, (4): 22-4, in Russian
Salikhova RA, Aleksandrova IV, Mazurik VK, Mikhailov VF, Ushenkova LN, Poroshenko GG.
"Effect of Rhodiola rosea on the yield of mutation alterations and DNA repair in bone marrow cells."

Abstract: The study was made of the influence of the Rhodiola rosea extracts administration on chromosome aberrations, production of cells with micronuclei and unscheduled DNA synthesis in bone marrow cells of mice under action of mutagens cyclophosphamide and N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). It was found that Rhodiola rosea extracts reduce significantly the yield of cells with the chromosome aberrations and micronuclei induced by cyclophosphamide in vivo, inhibit unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by NMU in vitro. It is emphasised that Rhodiola rosea extracts are antimutagens due to ability to raise the efficiency of the intracell DNA repair mechanisms.

Eksp Klin Farmakol 1997; May-Jun; 60(3): 34-6, in Russian
Lishmanov IB, Naumova AV, Afanas'ev SA, Maslov LN.
"Contribution of the opioid system to realization of inotropic effects of Rhodiola rosea extracts in ischemic and reperfusion heart damage in vitro. "

Abstract: It has been established that a course of oral administration of Rhodiola rosea extract in a dose of 3.5 mg/kg prevents reperfusion decrease in contraction amplitude of the isolated perfused rat heart. It also prevents reduction of coronary flow and development of contracture in the postischemic period. Intravenous infusion of naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) completely abolishes the favorable effect of Rhodiola in relation to the heart contractility and coronary flow parameters. The protective effect of Rhodiola may probably be connected with increase in the level of endogenous opioid peptides.

Radiats Biol Radioecol 1997; May-Jun, 37(3): 366-71, in Russian
Iakubovskii MM, Pentiuk AA, Khmelnitskii OK, Oleinik VN.
"The activity of the lipid peroxidation processes in the mucosa of the rat small intestine and its morphofunctional state under acute irradiation and the administration of combined preparations created on a base of highly dispersed silica."

Abstract: Morphofunctional and biochemical studies were carried out on bastard male rats (weight 200-240 g). The results showed that X-ray irradiation had induced structural alterations and elevation of lipid peroxidation in small intestine. Using of complex preparations defended this organ against pathological damages. The first preparation provided rat organisms with 100 ml/kg of silica, 2 mg/kg of beta-carotene, 30 mg/kg of alpha-tocopherol and 0.2 mg/kg of natrium selenite. The second preparation provided 100 mg/kg of silica, 10 mg/kg of dry Rhodiola extract, 0.1 mg/kg of tincture of Lagochilus [correction of Ladohilli] inebrians and 0.05 ml/kg of tincture of Aralia mandshurica. The third preparation provided organism with 100 mg/kg of silica and 20 mg/kg of thiobenzimidazole derivative. All these preparations had produced marked pharmacological effect.

Eksp Klin Farmakol 1997; Jan-Feb, 60(1): 38-9, in Russian
Maimeskulova LA, Maslov LN, Lishmanov IB, Krasnov EA.

"The participation of the mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in the realisation of the anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea."

Abstract: A course of the adaptogen extractum Rhodiola rosea (3.5 ml/kg given per os daily for 8 days). produces am antiarrhythmic effect on models of epinephrine-induced arrhythmia. Blockade of mu-opiate receptors (OR) by naloxone (0.2 mg/kg) and delta-OR by ICI 174.864 (2.5 mg/kg) had no effect on the resistance of the heart of rats adapted to epinephrine. Higher doses of naloxone reduced significantly the antiarrhythmic effect of extr. Rhodiola. The antiarrhythmic effect of the extract is assumed to be related to activation of the opioid system and stimulation of kappa-OR.

Biofizika 1997, 42(2), 480-83
Bolshakova IV, Lozovskaia EL, Sapezhinskii II

Antioxidant properties of a series of extracts from medicinal plants.

Apthech. Delo 1996; 15: 34-38.
Khnykina LA, Zotova MI

"To the pharmacognostic study of Rhodiola rosea."

Biophysics 1996; 42: 1480-1485.
Bolchakova IV, Lozoskaya EL, Sapezhinski II.

"Antioxidant properties of a series of extracts from medicinal plants."

Stomatologiia (Mosk) 1996; Spec No:42-3, in Russian
Alekhova TM, Iaremenko AI, Lobanov SA, Belozub EA.

"The experimental evaluation of the efficacy of using a Rhodiola rosea extract for treating odontogenic inflammatory diseases."

Urol Nefrol (Mosk) 1995; Mar-Apr, (2):46-7, in Russian
Bocharova OA, Matveev BP, Baryshnikov AI, Figurin KM, Serebriakova RV, Bodrova NB

"The effect of a Rhodiola rosea extract on the incidence of recurrences of a superficial bladder cancer (experimental clinical research)."

Abstract: Oral administration of Rhodiola rosea extract to a small group of patents (n = 12) with superficial bladder carcinoma (T1G1-2) improved the characteristics of the urothelial tissue integration, parameters of leukocyte integrins and T-cell immunity. The average frequency of relapses for these patients has been found to fall twice, though statistical differences were not significant.

Farmatsiya 1995; 44(3): 35-8.
Krendall FP et. al.
"Examining the hepatoprotective effect of a preparation made from Rhodiola rosea culture biomass."

Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Russian Federation Ministry of Health, phase two, 1994.
Baranov VM
"Experimental trials of herbal adaptogen effect on the quality of operator activity, mental and professional working capacity."

Eksp Klin Farmakol 1994; Nov-Dec, 57(6): 61-3, in Russian
Maslova LV, Kondrat'ev BI, Maslov LN, Lishmanov IB.

"The cardioprotective and antiadrenergic activity of an extract of Rhodiola rosea in stress".

Abstract: The course of administration of Rhodiola rosea extract was studied for effects on the pattern of stress-induced cardiac damage which was assessed by 99mTc-pyrophosphate accumulation in the heart. Rhodiola rosea was found to prevent stress-induced cardiac damage. Simultaneously, myocardial catecholamines and cAMP levels were measured. Rhodiola rosea was ascertained to prevent both stress-induced catecholamine release and higher cAMP levels in the myocardium. Moreover, the adaptogen prevented lower adrenal catecholamines during stress. The findings suggest that the antistressor and cardioprotective effects of Rhodiola rosea are associated with limited adrenergic effect on the heart.

Dopovidi Akademiyi Ukrayiny 1994; 0 (11): 164-167.
Barilyak IR, Dugan AM

"Investigation of anti-mutagenic effect of alcohol extracts from tissue cultures of Rhodiola rosea and Polyscias in experiments with Salmonella typhimurium."

Contract 93-11-615 Phase I, Phase II. Ministry of Health, Institute. of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow, 1994
Baranov VB

The response of cardiovascular system to dosed physical load under the effect of herbal adaptogen.

Biull Eksp Biol Med 1993; Nov, 116(11): 480-3, Russian
Afanas'ev SA, Alekseeva ED, Bardamova IB, Maslova LV, Lishmanov IB.
"Cardiac contractile function following acute cooling of the body and the adaptogenic correction of its disorders."

Abstract: In experiments on white Wistar rats the effect of acute 4-hour freezing at -10 degrees C on contractile function of the hearts isolated by the Langendorff technique, and the protective efficacy of Rhodiola rosea extract were investigated. The obtained results testify to the fact that acute cooling leads to a decrease in myocardial contractile activity that recovers during 18 hours. But this recovery cannot be complete as it does not result in stable contractility of isolated heart in perfusion. Preliminary adaptation of animals during treatment with Rhodiola rosea extract prevents the decrease in contractility force immediately after acute cooling and contributes to the stable contractility during 60 minutes of perfusion. Moreover, Rhodiola rosea extract does not remove the disturbance in diastolic function and in all cases leads to a decrease in coronary blood flow. The effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on the myocardium is likely to be similar to that of myocardial recovery after acute cooling.

Biull Eksp Biol Med 1993; Aug, 116(8): 175-6, in Russian
Lishmanov IB, Maslova LV, Maslov LN, Dan'shina EN.

"The anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea and its possible mechanism".

Abstract: A course injection of Rhodiola rosea extract for eight days was reported to increase the resistance of experimental animals to adrenalin- or CaCl2-induced arrhythmias. Preliminary injection of naloxone in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg eliminated the antiarrhythmic effect of Rhodiola. Indomethacin had no effect the antiarrhythmic action of Rhodiola. The antiarrhythmic effect of Rhodiola course injections was assumed to be associated with the induction of opioid peptides biosynthesis.

Dissertation, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen, 1993
Noerr H

Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of the adaptogens: Eleutherococcus senticoccus, Ocimum sanctum, Codonopsis pilosula, Rhodiola crenelatu.

Vopr Onkol 1992;38(10): 1217-22, in Russian
Udintsev SN, Krylova SG, Fomina TI.

"The enhancement of the efficacy of adriamycin by using hepatoprotectors of plant origin in metastases of Ehrlich's adenocarcinoma to the liver in mice".

Abstract: It was shown that the use of an anthracycline antibiotic--adriamycin in mice with metastatic involvement resulted in pronounced liver dysfunction, as suggested by a sharp increase in blood transaminase levels. In the same model, a hepatoprotector of plant origin--Rhodiola rosea extract--was shown to inhibit tumor dissemination. Combined application of adriamycin and the extract proved no inferior in terms of antimetastatic efficacy and nearly free from toxicity. 1992 Yau Hsueh Pao 1992; 27 (11): 849-52, "HPLC determination of salidroside in the roots of Rhodiola genus plants" Authors: Wang S., You XT, Wang FP College of Pharmacy, West China University of Medical Sciences, Chengdu.

Biofizika 1991; 36(4): 105-8 Jan-Feb.
Udintsev SN, Shakhov VP, Borovskoi IG, Ibragimova SG

"The effect of low concentrations of adaptogen solutions on the functional activity of murine bone marrow cells in vitro."

Neoplasma 1991; 38(3): 323-31.
Udintsev SN, Shakhov VP.
Research Institute of Pharmacology, USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk, USSR.

"The role of humoral factors of regenerating liver in the development of experimental tumours and the effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on this process."

Abstract: In experiment on rats with Pliss lymphosarcoma (PLS) it was shown that partial hepatectomy (PHE), a course application of Rhodiola rosea extract (RRE) or combined effects inhibit the growth of tumours by 37, 39 and 59%, respectively, and that of metastases by 42, 50 and 75%. In combined treatment the process of hepatic regeneration was completed in earlier terms versus the animals which underwent PHE, and proliferate activity of the tumour and metastases decreased by 15 and 59%, respectively, judging by the degree of 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA of these tissues. The assessment of clonogenic activity of PLS cells taken in the animals of this group, using the method of diffusion chambers, revealed a significant decrease in this index versus the rats which underwent PHE or which were given RRE (number of colonies per chamber being 4.8 +/- 0.5; 8.6 +/- 0.9; 5.7 +/- 0.6, respectively; in control 13.8 +/- 1.5). The assumption that these effects are determined by factors originating from the regenerating liver was confirmed in experiments with double-layer agar systems. Inhibition of colony-forming activity of PLS cells was the maximum in application of the hepatocytes of the rats which underwent a complex of effects, as a feeder, versus the hepatocytes taken in intact or hepatectomized animals, or the rats which were given RRE (number of colonies per plate well being 4.6 +/- 0.3; 15.7 +/- 1.6; 7.4 +/- 0.8; 8.7 +/- 0.9, respectively; in the control 25.6 +/- 6.5). In experiments on mice with Ehrlich adenocarcinoma, the factors isolated from the liver of animals subjected to PHE against a background of RRE administration and from the liver of mice which were given RRE only, as well as operated or intact ones, inhibited the tumour growth to 63, 38, 35 and 21%, respectively.

Eur J Cancer 1991; 27(9): 1182.
Udintsev SN, Schakhov VP.

"Decrease of cyclophosphamide haematotoxicity by Rhodiola rosea root extract in mice with Ehrlich and Lewis transplantable tumours."

Eksp Onkol 1990;12(6):55-6, in Russian
Udintsev SN, Shakhov VP.

"Changes in clonogenic properties of bone marrow and transplantable mice tumour cells during combined use of cyclophosphane and biological response modifiers of adaptogenic origin."

Abstract: The clonogenic activity of tumours and blood marrow cells has been studied in experiments on CBA, BALB/C and C57B1/6 mice with the Ehrlich adenocarcinoma and Lewis lung carcinosarcoma treated with adaptogenic drugs of Rhodiola Rosea extract, a synthetic analogue of Rhodiola phenol derivative, methyluracil and their combinations with cyclophosphamide. The extract and derivative are shown to protect the myelopoietic tissue from the toxic action of cyclophosphamide, retaining or increasing the suppressive effect of the latter towards clonogenic tumours cells. These data can be the reason for using the extract and derivative during the antitumor chemotherapy as biological response modifiers.

Paper released by the Scientific Research Institute of Pharmacology of the Tomsk Scientific Center, Academy of Science of the USSR, 1989.
Maslova L.V.

"The Cardioprotective Action of Adaptogenic Preparations during Stress."

Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 1989 Nov-Dec;35(6):82-7, in Russian
Molokovskii DS, Davydov VV, Tiulenev VV.
"The action of adaptogenic plant preparations in experimental alloxan diabetes."

Abstracts: Experiments on mice and rats with alloxan diabetes were conducted for comparative assessment of the effectiveness of therapeutic use of adaptogenic plant pharmaceuticals as well as some other commonly used plant drugs. Of marked antidiabetic properties were root and leaf ginseng tincture (LGT), Echinopanax tincture, extracts of Eleutherococcus, Rhodiola (ER) and Leuzea which decreased the blood level of glucose in a CTT (5 g h of glucose per I kg of the animal body mass) from 17.15 to 11.19, 11.50, 12.72, 11.69, 13.47 mmol/l and increased the alloxan-reduced level of liver glycogen by 50-80% (P less than 0.05). Aralia and Schizandra tinctures for this diabetic model were ineffective. Yarrow, everlastings and birch leaf tea also possessed marked hypoglycemic and glycogen sparing properties. The most effective experimentally plant adaptogens LGT and ER increased the blood level of insulin in alloxan diabetic rats in a GTT from 16.75 up to 44.42, 35.31 microU/ml and decreased the level of glucagon from 495 to 195 and 138 pg/ml, respectively. The authors discussed mechanisms of antidiabetic, insulinotropic and hypoglucagonemic action of the effective plant pharmaceuticals and the prospects of their use in multimodality therapy of diabetes mellitus of type I.

Antibiot Khimioter 1988; Aug 33(8): 615-7, in Russian
Borovskaia TG, Fomina TI, Iaremenko KV.

"A decrease in the toxic action of rubomycin on the small intestine of mice with a transplantable tumour through the use of a Rhodiola extract."

Biull Eksp Biol Med 1987; Apr 103(4): 422-4, in Russian
Lishmanov IB, Trifonova ZV, Tsibin AN, Maslova LV, Dement'eva LA.

"Plasma beta-endorphin and stress hormones in stress and adaptation."

Abstract: The experiments on white rats have shown that the induction of 4 hour stress produces an acute increase in beta-endorphin level, as well as characteristic changes in ACTH, cortisol, insulin, thyroxin and triiodothyronine concentrations. Different types of adaptation (training with short stress periods or injection of rhodiola rosea extract) promote a moderate increase in the amount of serum immunoreactive beta-endorphin, preventing its subsequent stress-induced elevation. Adaptation is characterized by a decrease or total prevention of hormonal change peculiar to stress. The role of opioid neuropeptides in enhancing stress tolerance and the effect of adaptation factors are discussed.1987
Vopr Onkol 1987; 33(7):57-60, in Russian
Dement'eva LA, Iaremenko KV.

"Effect of a Rhodiola extract on the tumour process in an experiment."
Abstract: Antitumour and antimetastatic effects of an official extract of Rhodiola rosea were established in experiments on inbred and noninbred mice and rats with transplantable NK/Ly tumour, Ehrlich's adenocarcinoma, melanoma B16 and Lewis lung carcinoma. Application of the said preparation to sarcolysin-treated animals was followed by an increase in survival.1987
Rhodiola Rosea is a Valuable Medicinal Plant. Tomsk: Medical Institute, 1987, 194.
Saratikov, A.S., and E.A. Krasnov.
"The Adaptogenic Attributes of Rhodiola."

Medicinal Plant. Tomsk: Medical Institute, 1987, 91.
Saratikov, A.S.. E.A. Krasnov, and B.Yu. Salnik.
"The Biochemical Mechanism of the Stimulative Action of Rhodiola."
Medicinal Plant. Tomsk: Medical Institute, 1987, 150.
Saratikov A.S., Krasnov E.A., Marina T.F.

"The Influence of Rhodiola on the Central Nervous System."

Med Physiol 1987;40:85-87.
Stancheva SL, Mosharrof A.

"Effect of the extract of Rhodiola rosea L. on the content of the brain biogenic monamines." 1987
Rhodiola Rosea is a Valuable Medicinal Plant. Tomsk: Medical Institute, 1987, 180.
Saratikov A.S., Krasnov E.A.

"The Influence of Rhodiola on the Endocrine Glands and the Liver."