Resveratrol Review Article
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants due to bacteria and fungi. The effect of resveratrol on life span of fruit flies and nematode worms is still under debate. During mouse and rat experiments some beneficial cardiovascular effects of resveratrol have been reported, such as: anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and blood-sugar-lowering. Resveratrol is a constituent of red wine and it can be also found in the skin of red grapes. Furthermore, Resveratrol anti-inflammatory effect have been demonstrated during several animal studies.
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The French Paradox
Grapes and wine contain a natural antidote to MI and cancer, scientists report. This discovery could help explain the so-called “French paradox’ - the lower rates of heart disease and cancer in nations such as France, Italy, Spain.
Platelet Aggregation and not Atheroma - main cause of MI
In a classic 1992 article about the French paradox for heart disease, Renaud and de Lorgeril present evidence that dietary fat and blood cholesterol are not primary MI villains, at least among the French. They note that the annual mortality rate per 100,000 population from coronary heart disease (CHD) is 78 in Toulouse, France, and 105 in Lille, France (for men), compared to 182 in Stanford, USA, 348 in Belfast, UK, and 380 in Glasgow, UK. Yet the saturated fat intake is about the same for these groups - 15% of the total calories. The mean serum cholesterol for men is notably lower in Stanford (209 mg%) than in France (230 in Toulouse, 252 in Lille), while Belfast (232) and Glasgow (244) levels are similar to France; yet all three have much higher MI mortality rates than France.
Renaud and de Lorgeril note that stepwise multivariate analysis shows that in the 17 countries that reported wine consumption, wine was the only foodstuff in addition to dairy fat that correlated significantly with mortality. Wine had a negative correlation, indicating a protective effect. They then present evidence that it is not through inhibitory effects on atherosclerotic lesions (atheroma) that wine provides MI protection, but rather through a decrease in the tendency of platelets to pathologically aggregate and plug up heart arteries. They compared farmers from Var, Southern France (low in CHD mortality), with farmers from south-west Scotland for platelet-aggregation tendencies. Platelet aggregation was strikingly lower in Var. Secondary aggregation to ADP, the test that undergoes the greatest decrease with alcohol, was 55% lower in Var than in Scotland, whereas mean levels of HDL cholesterol (allegedly MI-protective) were very similar (69 mg/dl in Girvan, Scotland, 66 mg/dl in Stranraer, Scotland, and 63 mg/dl in Var). Consumption of alcohol was greatest in Var (45g per day vs. 20g per day in Scotland), mostly in the form of wine.
Researcher David Goldberg rhetorically asked, “Does red wine contain a biological component that is present only in limited amounts in a typical diet?” Indeed it does: resveratrol. This trihydroxystilbene is synthesized by grapes, being present in the canes, leaves and the skin of the berries. Other than peanuts, no other human-consumed foodstuff contains significant amounts. The resveratrol story does not begin with its recent discovery in wine. It actually started in the early 1980s among Japanese scientific re-searchers. Reporting in 1982, Arichi et al. noted that the dried roots of Polygonum cuspidatum have been used in traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine in a product called Kojo-kon, used to treat a wide range of afflictions, including fungal diseases of the heart, liver, and blood vessels. Resveratrol and its glycoside, polycoside polydatin have been shown to be the primary active ingredients of Kojo-kon
Free radicals and Antioxidants
Antioxidants inhibit lipid oxidation by reducing general [hydroperoxide] tone. The polyphenolics including Resveratrol and Quercetin, commonly found in wine, are potent antioxidants. De Whalley et al. (1990) reported that flavonoids act by protecting (and perhaps regenerating) the primary antioxidant, tocopherol [Vitamin E], by direct antioxidant effects, and by scavenging free radicals. Frankel et al. in 1993 reported both Resveratrol and Quercetin to be more powerful antioxidants than Vitamin E in protecting human LDL against oxidation.
In 1994, Stavric wrote that it appears that a number of the biological effects of quercetin and other flavonoids may be explained by their antioxidant activity and the ability to scavenge free radicals. The antioxidative function of quercetin, found in red wine, was enhanced by ascorbate (vitamin C). And even more potent beneficial effects of quercetin, as a radical scavenger and/or as inhibiting lipid peroxidation were found in its combination with Vitamin E and Vitamin C.
Thus, a combination of resveratrol (RSV), quercetin (QRC), vitamin E (E), vitamin C (C), and the trace mineral selenium (Se) may be expected to have a highly synergistic effect in reducing pathological platelet-aggregation (thrombogenesis), maximizing PGI2/minimizing TXA2 (thus dilating arteries for healthy blood flow, as well as opposing platelet aggregation) and minimizing free-radical damage/disruption to blood vessel lining (i.e. preventing/minimizing atherogenesis).
Resveratrol, red wine and cancer.
There are three stages of cancer development. First stage - “trigger stage”. This is the early stage when cells starts an abnormal reproduction cycle. An immune system usually destroys these abnormal cells. Second stage - “promotion stage”, when your immune system is not able to destroy all cancerous cells, and they reproduce rapidly. Third stage - “growth stage”. In this stage the number of cancerous cells is huge, they expand rapidly while impairing the functioning of the body. Each of these stages can last for several years.
It was shown that resveratrol content in ordinary French red wines is approximately 5 parts per million, while in Muscadine wine from North Carolina it is ten times greater - up to 50 parts per million.
These previously mentioned five compounds RSV, QRC, E, C and Se also have a similar beneficial effect in preventing cancer, or even aiding in its cure. In 1997 Jang et al. reported the results of a series of biochemical, cell culture, and animal studies with RSV in the prestigious journal Science. They reported that Resveratrol inhibits cellular events associated with all three stages of tumor development: initiation, promotion and progression. They also wrote that “...we studied tumorigenesis in the two-stage mouse skin cancer model in which a special chemical (DMBA) was used as initiator and another chemical (TPA) as promoter. During an 18-week study mice treated with DMBA-plus TPA developed an average of two tumors per mouse with 40% tumor incidence. Application of 1, 5, 10 or 25 [micromoles] of resveratrol together with TPA twice a week for 18 weeks reduced the number of skin tumors per mouse by 68, 81, 76 or 98% respectively, and the percentage of mice with tumors was lowered by 50, 63, 63 or 88%, respectively. No overt signs of resveratol-induced toxicity were observed.” They also note in their paper the importance and potency of RSV’s antioxidant and anti-mutagenic activity in preventing tumor initiation.
QRC has also shown potent anti-cancer activity. QRC has been shown to inhibit the growth of cells derived from human and animal cancers, such as leukemia and Ehrlich ascites tumors, the estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinoma (MCF-7), squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck origin, gastric cancer and colon cancer, as well as human leukemia HL-60 cell in culture. Vang et al. reported RSV to be active in normalizing HL-60 cells in culture back into normal cells. QRC has antiproliferative activity against breast and stomach cancer primary cultures. Several studies report that Vitamin E reduces tumor growth and exerts an anti-cancer effect in both the initiation and promotion stages because of its antioxidant and immuno-enha-ncing actions. Vitamin E appears more effective in conjunction with other nutrients (such as selenium and Vitamin C), than by itself in the prevention of tumor growth.
See also: Flavonoids
Red Wine Extract notes:
Red wine extracts benefits many people suffering from different ailments related to growing age. They are basically organic compounds derived from red wine that have proven beneficial in case of many age related diseases. According to scientists, grapes and wine contain elements that can act as a natural antidote to ailments like heart diseases and cancer. That is why people who regularly drink red wine have been proven to be relatively safer from various age related illness by a margin of no less than 40%.
The most important ingredient of red wine extract is resveratrol, which is a trihydroxystilbene, and is not present in adequate amounts in a normal diet. Red wine extracts rich in resveratrol can prove to be quite effective in treating health problems like fungal diseases of the heart, liver, and blood vessels. Resveratrol has also been proven to be quite effective in slowing down cellular proceedings related to the different stages of cancer.
Red wine extracts benefit people by supplementing their bodies with the good ingredients of wine without the need of consuming it in alcoholic form. Useful ingredients like free radicals and antioxidants are present in abundance in wine and can prove to be more influential than Vitamin E and in turn help in defending the LDL of humans from oxidation. Each red wine extract capsule contains 200 mg mix of the good ingredients extracted from red wine and a packing of 30 capsules costs USD 17.00. The benefits of taking one red wine extract pill are equivalent t drinking 2-3 glasses of red wine. However, taking a pill is much healthier as it does not contain even traces of alcohol. So even, people who are adverse to consuming alcohol can easily reap the benefits of red wine by taking red wine extract capsules.
NHMRC Presents new guideline for all liquor drinkers both men and women
A little bit of drinking is not also safe, says NHMRC. At present, people assume that small amount of drinking liquor is safe but according to the NHMRC, it is a myth.
In this month, a special guidelines released by “National Health and Medical Research Council” in relation of Liquor intake.
In past around 2001, a guideline suggest that four standard of drinking liquor in a day for men and two standard drinks for the women is useful but the old guideline escaped the short-term consequences such as acute liver damage, acute alcohol poisoning, injuries, accidents and many other consequences that happen because of drinking.
At present, the new guidelines not only compress the short-term consequences but long-term consequences also. In Long-term consequences, lifelong risks by alcohol consumption are compressed such as cancers of the throat, oesophagus, prostate, breast, liver and bowel along with huge damage to brain and liver.
In relation of liquor drinking, the NHMRC presents this guideline that small amount of drinking is not good but it has lower level of damages.
Many times, it has been seen that drink liquor a glass or two glass also create problems therefore now scientific experts are agree on that, there is no perfect ratio of safe quantity of drinking liquor.
With this new guideline, the NHMRC also says that those women, who are planning of pregnancy and who are already pregnant or those women who are breastfeeding the babies, must avoid drinking liquor. Along with, the NHMRC has also suggested that who are of less than 18 years age, shouldn’t drink liquor also.
Resveratrol can increase life span in vertebrates too – says researchers
Researchers from Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa and others have found that Resveratrol increases the life span in fish spieces. Initially Resveratrol was found to increase the life span of drosphila fruit fly and C.elegans worm. The present research support the studies of Resveratrol on humans as fishes, being vertebrates are close to humans.
The fish species Nothobranchius furzeri was choosen for the task because it has maximum lifespan of 13 weeks in captivity as compared to relatively long lifespan of 2.5 years of mice. Short lifespan in this species is due to necessity to breed in an ephemeral habitat and with accelerated development and expression of aging biomarkers at a cellular level.
In the experiment, Resveratrol was added to the food from early adulthood which cauased a dose-dependent increase of median and maximum lifespan. In addition, it delayed age dependent decay of locomotor activity and cognitive performances and reduced neurofibrillary degeneration in the brain. These results demonstrate that food supplementation with Resveratrol prolongs lifespan and retards the expression of age-dependent traits in a short-lived vertebrate.
Blueberries helpful against anti aging – A general information
Blueberries contains highest amount of anti-oxidants. It provides all the essential nutrients to the body and also provides health benefits by supplying anti oxidant power.
Anti oxidants are believed to fight against free radicals and chronic conditions in the body which are linked with the process of aging. They work by protecting the cells there by providing resistance against aging. Blueberries contain 0.8 mg of Vitamin E per serving and 14 mg of Vitamin C per cup along with phenolics and anthocyanins which act as useful antioxidant.
Among all the benefits of blueberries, anthocyanins is believed to restrict the memory loss cause due to aging. It is also believed to increase the behavioural learning and memory and also help to regulate loss in motor skills and cognitive functions. Blueberries also have a beneficial impact on balance and coordination which results due to age. Tannin, flavonals and anthocyanins may assist in cancer prevention. It lowers the chances of cognitive deterioration associated with Alzheimer’s and also reduces the risk of strokes. Being less in calories blueberries serves to be as a best snack.
Resveratrol acts as a shield to prevent brain stroke:
Resveratrol a nature based chemical compound present in red wine may guard the brain from getting deteriorated, following a cerebrovascular accident or to be more precise after stroke. The above accident can be seen in the light of truth as the perplexity behind the whole thing has now been resolved by the expertise team of John Hopkins.
An experiment was conducted on a transgenic animal: a mouse that led to the conclusion that resveratrol does guard the cerebrum from getting damaged even if the intake is not very high. Analyst also stated that the animals who were as a precautionary measure given resveratrol prominently suffered minimal bane when compared with others.
It has been observed that when the cerebrovascular accident takes place, the cerebrum creates a wall around itself as a result of levitated catalyst enzyme cells. According to Sylvain Dore, an associate professor of anesthesiology, critical care medicine and having many dept to his credit at the John Hopkins University Scholl of Medicine, Resveratrol upsurges the bar of heme oxygenase (an enzyme) which in return prevents the nerve cells from getting damaged. Findings also revealed that cerebral cells of those mice that had the deficiency of heme oxygenase got destroyed immediately after the first incident of cerebrovascular attack. He also went on to state that resveratrol can strength the brain’s ability to resist itself from cerebrovascular disorder.
Off lately it has been noticed that red wine has many other health benefits to its credit. Apart from saving the brain from an ischemic attack, it can also bring down the frequency rate of heart diseases. Statistical study on French plebeians has proven the above statement true as inspite of being high on diet substantial decrease in heart diseases has been noticed because of the regular practice of drinking wine.
According to Dore, variety of red wine is available to one’s sight; however one needs to be ultra conscious when it comes to choosing the best as the level of resveratrol is not the same in all the types of red wine. He also stated that studies are still on in order to zero down the positive traits of resveratrol and how much of it would actually suffice the patient’s need. High concentrations of resveratrol may not be needed as resveratrol and its attributes both plays an important role in protecting the cerebral from the loose radical detoriation.
Researches are still on by the team of John Hopkins in order to identify and discover the ameliorative benefits of resveratrol.
Resveratrol Review Article