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lipoic, lipoic acid, alpha lipoic, alpha-lipoic acid, antioxidant

Alpha-Lipoic Acid Scientific abstracts
  Antioxidant adaptive response of human mononuclear cells to UV-B: effect of lipoic acid.
Alvarez S, Boveris A.
Laboratory of Free Radical Biology, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
J Photochem Photobiol B. 2000 Apr-May;55(2-3):113-9.

Supplementation of human mononuclear cells with 3 and 6 mM of lipoic acid produces an inhibition of the antioxidant adaptive response triggered by treatment with UV-B light (0.30 W/m2 for 15 min). Supplementation with 1.5 mM of lipoic acid gives no conclusive results. The adaptive response is characterized by an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and DT-diaphorase. Catalase (5.5 +/- 0.6 pmol/mg prot) increases its activity by up to 22 +/- 3 pmol/mg prot, after irradiation with UV-B. Supplementation with 3 and 6 mM of lipoic acid completely inhibits the adaptive response. The activities of the membrane-bound mitochondrial enzymes succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase do not increase after UV-B exposure. Moreover, their activities are found to decrease and the addition of lipoic acid does not prevent this effect. The inhibition of the antioxidant response by lipoic acid in human cells appears as indirect evidence of the existence of oxidative stress in the development of this response. As lipoic acid behaves as an effective antioxidant, it seems that its action decreases the intracellular oxidative signals necessary to develop the adaptive response in human mononuclear cells.

Alpha-Lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant.
Packer L, Witt EH, Tritschler HJ.
Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA.
Free Radic Biol Med. 1995 Aug;19(2):227-50.

alpha-Lipoic acid, which plays an essential role in mitochondrial dehydrogenase reactions, has recently gained considerable attention as an antioxidant. Lipoate, or its reduced form, dihydrolipoate, reacts with reactive oxygen species such as superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, hypochlorous acid, peroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. It also protects membranes by interacting with vitamin C and glutathione, which may in turn recycle vitamin E. In addition to its antioxidant activities, dihydrolipoate may exert prooxidant actions through reduction of iron. alpha-Lipoic acid administration has been shown to be beneficial in a number of oxidative stress models such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, diabetes (both alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid exhibit hydrophobic binding to proteins such as albumin, which can prevent glycation reactions), cataract formation, HIV activation, neurodegeneration, and radiation injury. Furthermore, lipoate can function as a redox regulator of proteins such as myoglobin, prolactin, thioredoxin and NF-kappa B transcription factor. We review the properties of lipoate in terms of (1) reactions with reactive oxygen species; (2) interactions with other antioxidants; (3) beneficial effects in oxidative stress models or clinical conditions.

The pharmacology of the antioxidant lipoic acid.
Biewenga GP, Haenen GR, Bast A.
Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Vrije Universiteit, Department of Pharmacochemistry, The Netherlands.

1. Lipoic acid is an example of an existing drug whose therapeutic effect has been related to its antioxidant activity. 2. Antioxidant activity is a relative concept: it depends on the kind of oxidative stress and the kind of oxidizable substrate (e.g., DNA, lipid, protein). 3. In vitro, the final antioxidant activity of lipoic acid is determined by its concentration and by its antioxidant properties. Four antioxidant properties of lipoic acid have been studied: its metal chelating capacity, its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), its ability to regenerate endogenous antioxidants and its ability to repair oxidative damage. 4. Dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), formed by reduction of lipoic acid, has more antioxidant properties than does lipoic acid. Both DHLA and lipoic acid have metal-chelating capacity and scavenge ROS, whereas only DHLA is able to regenerate endogenous antioxidants and to repair oxidative damage. 5. As a metal chelator, lipoic acid was shown to provide antioxidant activity by chelating Fe2+ and Cu2+; DHLA can do so by chelating Cd2+. 6. As scavengers of ROS, lipoic acid and DHLA display antioxidant activity in most experiments, whereas, in particular cases, pro-oxidant activity has been observed. However, lipoic acid can act as an antioxidant against the pro-oxidant activity produced by DHLA. 7. DHLA has the capacity to regenerate the endogenous antioxidants vitamin E, vitamin C and glutathione. 8. DHLA can provide peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase with reducing equivalents. This enhances the repair of oxidatively damaged proteins such as alpha-1 antiprotease. 9. Through the lipoamide dehydrogenase-dependent reduction of lipoic acid, the cell can draw on its NADH pool for antioxidant activity additionally to its NADPH pool, which is usually consumed during oxidative stress. 10. Within drug-related antioxidant pharmacology, lipoic acid is a model compound that enhances understanding of the mode of action of antioxidants in drug therapy.

Thioctic (lipoic) acid: a therapeutic metal-chelating antioxidant?
Ou P, Tritschler HJ, Wolff SP.
Department of Medicine, University College London Medical School, U.K.
Biochem Pharmacol. 1995 Jun 29;50(1):123-6.

Thioctic (alpha-lipoic) acid (TA) is a drug used for the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy in Germany. It has been proposed that TA acts as an antioxidant and interferes with the pathogenesis of diabetic polyneuropathy. We suggest that one component of its antioxidant activity requiring study is the direct transition metal-chelating activity of the drug. We found that TA had a profound dose-dependent inhibitory effect upon Cu(2+)-catalysed ascorbic acid oxidation (monitored by O2 uptake and spectrophotometrically at 265 nm) and also increased the partition of Cu2+ into n-octanol from an aqueous solution suggesting that TA forms a lipophilic complex with Cu2+. TA also inhibited Cu(2+)-catalysed liposomal peroxidation. Furthermore, TA inhibited intracellular H2O2 production in erythrocytes challenged with ascorbate, a process thought to be mediated by loosely chelated Cu2+ within the erythrocyte. These data, taken together, suggest that prior intracellular reduction of TA to dihydrolipoic acid is not an obligatory mechanism for an antioxidant effect of the drug, which may also operate via Cu(2+)-chelation. The R-enantiomer and racemic mixture of the drug (alpha-TA) generally seemed more effective than the S-enantiomer in these assays of metal chelation.

The antioxidant properties of thioctic acid: characterization by cyclic voltammetry.
Chevion S, Hofmann M, Ziegler R, Chevion M, Nawroth PP.
Department of Internal Medicine, Heidelberg University, Germany.
Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1997 Feb;41(2):317-27.

Thioctic acid (TA) level and its antioxidant capacity were monitored by cyclic voltammetry (CV), in solution and in human plasma. A linear correlation between the anodic wave current Ia at 900 mV and [TA] was obtained. This indicates that TA, commonly found in human plasma, is an antioxidant component characterized by a potential E1/2 = 900 mV and constitute, at least in part, the second anodic wave of the CV tracing. When plasma from diabetic patients was analyzed by CV, those patients under treatment with TA showed higher Ia than others not taking the drug. When the patients under treatment with TA were divided into groups according to the severity of their nephropathy, or according to the severity of their total complication count, Ia levels representing TA were significantly higher in those patients with more severe complications.